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Косвенная и прямая речь

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«Косвенная и прямая речь»

Direct and reported speech (Прямая и косвенная речь)

Direct and reported speech (Прямая и косвенная речь)

Прямая речь – речь какого-либо лица, передаваемая буквально так, как она была произнесена.  Косвенная речь - речь, передаваемая не слово в слово, а только по содержанию, в виде дополнительных придаточных предложений.  Прямая речь Косвенная речь  John says,” I enjoy reading.” John says that  he enjoys reading      Запомни!  Из прямой речи в косвенную произведи следующие изменения:  - косвенная речь вводится глаголом to say и союзом (that)  - кавычки опускаются;  -личные и притяжательные местоимения прямой речи заменяются по смыслу, как и в русском языке.  Robert:” Reading plays an important role in my life.”  Robert says  that reading plays an important role in his life.

Прямая речь – речь какого-либо лица, передаваемая буквально так, как она была произнесена. Косвенная речь - речь, передаваемая не слово в слово, а только по содержанию, в виде дополнительных придаточных предложений. Прямая речь Косвенная речь John says,” I enjoy reading.” John says that he enjoys reading Запомни! Из прямой речи в косвенную произведи следующие изменения: - косвенная речь вводится глаголом to say и союзом (that) - кавычки опускаются; -личные и притяжательные местоимения прямой речи заменяются по смыслу, как и в русском языке. Robert:” Reading plays an important role in my life.” Robert says that reading plays an important role in his life.

Sequence of tenses(Согласование времен)  Direct speech Reported speech  Present Simple Past Simple  I don’t like watching TV. He said that he didn’t like watching TV.  Present Progressive Past Progressive  I am watching TV. He said that he was watching TV.  Present Perfect Past Perfect  I have seen this show. He said that he had seen that show.  Present Perfect Progressive Past Perfect Progressive  I have been watching TV for 2 hours. He said that he had been watching TV for 2 hours  Past Simple Past Perfect  I saw  this show yesterday . He said that he had seen that show the day before.  The show started  in 2000. He said that show started  in 2000 .  (если указано время совершения действия)  Past Progressive Past Perfect Progressive  Yesterday at 5p.m.. I was watching my favourite show . He said that he had been watching his favourite show at 5 p.m . the day before .  Past Perfect Past Perfect  I had watched 2 of my favourite TV shows by 4 p.m. He said that he had watched 2 of his favourite TV shows by 4 p.m.  Future Simple Simple Future in the Past  I will watch this show tomorrow. He said that he would watch that show the next day.  To be going to  I’m going to watch TV tonight. She said that she was going to watch TV that night .

Sequence of tenses(Согласование времен) Direct speech Reported speech Present Simple Past Simple I don’t like watching TV. He said that he didn’t like watching TV. Present Progressive Past Progressive I am watching TV. He said that he was watching TV. Present Perfect Past Perfect I have seen this show. He said that he had seen that show. Present Perfect Progressive Past Perfect Progressive I have been watching TV for 2 hours. He said that he had been watching TV for 2 hours Past Simple Past Perfect I saw this show yesterday . He said that he had seen that show the day before. The show started in 2000. He said that show started in 2000 . (если указано время совершения действия) Past Progressive Past Perfect Progressive Yesterday at 5p.m.. I was watching my favourite show . He said that he had been watching his favourite show at 5 p.m . the day before . Past Perfect Past Perfect I had watched 2 of my favourite TV shows by 4 p.m. He said that he had watched 2 of his favourite TV shows by 4 p.m. Future Simple Simple Future in the Past I will watch this show tomorrow. He said that he would watch that show the next day. To be going to I’m going to watch TV tonight. She said that she was going to watch TV that night .

Измени следующие модальные глаголы  can  could  I cannot take part in this reality show next week . He said that he could not take part in that reality show the following week .  may might  You may watch this show. She said I might watch that show.  have to / has to had to  I have to switch to another channel. She said that she had to switch to another channel.  НЕ меняются следующие модальные глаголы :  should/could/might/had to/ought/must/need/needn’t  Измени указательные местоимения и наречия времени и места:  this that  these those  here there  now then  today that day/at the time  the day after tomorrow two days later/ in two days’ time  yesterday the day before/ on the previous day  last night (on)the previous night  last week/year the previous week/year  ago before  tomorrow the next day  this year that year  this week that week  next week the following week  next year the next year/the following year

Измени следующие модальные глаголы can could I cannot take part in this reality show next week . He said that he could not take part in that reality show the following week . may might You may watch this show. She said I might watch that show. have to / has to had to I have to switch to another channel. She said that she had to switch to another channel. НЕ меняются следующие модальные глаголы : should/could/might/had to/ought/must/need/needn’t Измени указательные местоимения и наречия времени и места: this that these those here there now then today that day/at the time the day after tomorrow two days later/ in two days’ time yesterday the day before/ on the previous day last night (on)the previous night last week/year the previous week/year ago before tomorrow the next day this year that year this week that week next week the following week next year the next year/the following year

Запомни:  -если сообщение в прямой речи передается в тот же день и в том же месте, то замена наречий и места может не происходить  I’ll watch this programme tomorrow.  I said I would watch this programme tomorrow.  - с вводным глаголом to say могут употребляться другие глаголы и конструкции:  to think, to answer, to reply (ответить), to complain(жаловаться), to add(добавить), to know, to promise (обещать),to hope, to suggest (предположить), to decide ( решить);  -to be interested (surprised/glad/happy/sorry….)- для выражения отношения к тому, что передается в косвенной речи  -после вводных глаголов to tell, to advise, to inform, to remind, to warn, to convince, to teach +  object( имя или личное местоимение в объектном падеже me, you, him, her, us, you, them ) VERB +OBJECT +THAT clause  We told  them  that everyone would watch this show.

Запомни: -если сообщение в прямой речи передается в тот же день и в том же месте, то замена наречий и места может не происходить I’ll watch this programme tomorrow. I said I would watch this programme tomorrow. - с вводным глаголом to say могут употребляться другие глаголы и конструкции: to think, to answer, to reply (ответить), to complain(жаловаться), to add(добавить), to know, to promise (обещать),to hope, to suggest (предположить), to decide ( решить); -to be interested (surprised/glad/happy/sorry….)- для выражения отношения к тому, что передается в косвенной речи -после вводных глаголов to tell, to advise, to inform, to remind, to warn, to convince, to teach + object( имя или личное местоимение в объектном падеже me, you, him, her, us, you, them ) VERB +OBJECT +THAT clause We told them that everyone would watch this show.

- после to say, to think, to agree, to mention, to notice, to promise , союз that можно не использовать ( verb+(that) clause )  -после to answer, to continue, to reply, to shout, to complain, to warn, to argue обязательно используется that (verb+ that clause)  - после to advise, to demand, to suggest следует использовать should после that  -если косвенная речь состоит из нескольких предложений и все описываемые в них действия относятся к прошлому, то возможно только в первом предложении использовать глагол в PAST PERFECT :  He said that he had seen that film when he was a child.  -если речь идет о фактах или то, о чем говорится, является действительным на момент разговора, то в косвенной речи глагол-сказуемое может не менять свою форму:  There are around 10,000 commercial radio stations in the USA.  They said that there are around 10,000 commercial radio stations in the USA.

- после to say, to think, to agree, to mention, to notice, to promise , союз that можно не использовать ( verb+(that) clause ) -после to answer, to continue, to reply, to shout, to complain, to warn, to argue обязательно используется that (verb+ that clause) - после to advise, to demand, to suggest следует использовать should после that -если косвенная речь состоит из нескольких предложений и все описываемые в них действия относятся к прошлому, то возможно только в первом предложении использовать глагол в PAST PERFECT : He said that he had seen that film when he was a child. -если речь идет о фактах или то, о чем говорится, является действительным на момент разговора, то в косвенной речи глагол-сказуемое может не менять свою форму: There are around 10,000 commercial radio stations in the USA. They said that there are around 10,000 commercial radio stations in the USA.

Переход прямой речи в косвенную:  - прямая речь является вопросительным предложением .  Если прямой вопрос начинается с вспомогательного или модального глагола , то косвенный вопрос вводится союзами whether или if (в значении - ли ); порядок слов повествовательного предложения .  Lisa asked, ” Are you leaving at midnight?”   Lisa asked if I was leaving at midnight.  - если прямой вопрос начинается с вопросительного слова, то косвенный вопрос присоединяется к главному предложению при помощи того же вопросительного слова ; порядок слов прямой , т.е. как в повествовательном предложении.  John asked, ‘ What  did he tell you about his trip?’   John asked what  he  had told me about his trip.  -если прямая речь является повелительным предложением , то при переводе ее в косвенную речь производятся следующие изменения:  а) to say заменяется на to tell(велеть, сказать), to recommend(рекомендовать), to ask(просить), to advise(советовать)  б) повелительное наклонение заменяется в косвенной речи инфинитивом .  Отрицательная форма заменяется инфинитивом с частицей not  ‘ Will you open the window, please ?’ Melany asked.   Melany asked to open the window.  ‘Please don’t open the window,’ Melany asked.   Melany asked not to open the window.

Переход прямой речи в косвенную: - прямая речь является вопросительным предложением . Если прямой вопрос начинается с вспомогательного или модального глагола , то косвенный вопрос вводится союзами whether или if (в значении - ли ); порядок слов повествовательного предложения . Lisa asked, ” Are you leaving at midnight?” Lisa asked if I was leaving at midnight. - если прямой вопрос начинается с вопросительного слова, то косвенный вопрос присоединяется к главному предложению при помощи того же вопросительного слова ; порядок слов прямой , т.е. как в повествовательном предложении. John asked, ‘ What did he tell you about his trip?’ John asked what he had told me about his trip. -если прямая речь является повелительным предложением , то при переводе ее в косвенную речь производятся следующие изменения: а) to say заменяется на to tell(велеть, сказать), to recommend(рекомендовать), to ask(просить), to advise(советовать) б) повелительное наклонение заменяется в косвенной речи инфинитивом . Отрицательная форма заменяется инфинитивом с частицей not ‘ Will you open the window, please ?’ Melany asked. Melany asked to open the window. ‘Please don’t open the window,’ Melany asked. Melany asked not to open the window.

Задание на закрепление  I. Put these statements into Reported Speech.  1) ‘I can’t swim very well’, I said.  2) Andrew said: ’I don’t want to go swimming’.  3) ‘I’ll phone you later’, Sarah said.  4)Annie said:‘I’m hungry’.  5) I told him: ‘I don’t like tea’.  6) Olaf said: ‘My father does a lot of business with England’.  7)The woman said: ‘I will pay you two pounds’.  8) She said to Lilian: ‘You can come with me’  9) He said: ‘I don’t think it will be interesting’.  10) My friend told me: ‘You can go there for a year’.  11) She said: ‘Nothing will make me do it’.  12)Mike said: ‘My friend is a painter’.  13) She said: ‘I am good at painting’.  14)’I will have lunch on Saturday’, he said.  15) The teacher said: ‘I will give you a new task on Reported Speech’.

Задание на закрепление I. Put these statements into Reported Speech. 1) ‘I can’t swim very well’, I said. 2) Andrew said: ’I don’t want to go swimming’. 3) ‘I’ll phone you later’, Sarah said. 4)Annie said:‘I’m hungry’. 5) I told him: ‘I don’t like tea’. 6) Olaf said: ‘My father does a lot of business with England’. 7)The woman said: ‘I will pay you two pounds’. 8) She said to Lilian: ‘You can come with me’ 9) He said: ‘I don’t think it will be interesting’. 10) My friend told me: ‘You can go there for a year’. 11) She said: ‘Nothing will make me do it’. 12)Mike said: ‘My friend is a painter’. 13) She said: ‘I am good at painting’. 14)’I will have lunch on Saturday’, he said. 15) The teacher said: ‘I will give you a new task on Reported Speech’.

II. Turn the following direct commands and requests into indirect ones.   1) Mrs.Wiggins: ‘Don’t make such a fuss, James’.  2) A teacher(to the class): ‘Work harder’.  3) Andrew(to his dog): ‘Don’t go away’.  4) Frieda( to Tom): ‘Pass me the sugar, please’.  5) A teacher (to the pupil): ‘Answer my question, please’.  6) Timothy: ‘Look out, Nick!’  7) Grandpa: ‘Mr.Wiggins, hold the ladder, please’.  8) Mrs.Wiggins: ’Mother, don’t speak so loudly, please’.  9) Mr.Wiggins: ‘Timothy, don’t take the picture!’  10) An officer (to his soldiers): ‘Fire at the enemy!’

II. Turn the following direct commands and requests into indirect ones. 1) Mrs.Wiggins: ‘Don’t make such a fuss, James’. 2) A teacher(to the class): ‘Work harder’. 3) Andrew(to his dog): ‘Don’t go away’. 4) Frieda( to Tom): ‘Pass me the sugar, please’. 5) A teacher (to the pupil): ‘Answer my question, please’. 6) Timothy: ‘Look out, Nick!’ 7) Grandpa: ‘Mr.Wiggins, hold the ladder, please’. 8) Mrs.Wiggins: ’Mother, don’t speak so loudly, please’. 9) Mr.Wiggins: ‘Timothy, don’t take the picture!’ 10) An officer (to his soldiers): ‘Fire at the enemy!’

III. Turn the speaker’s words into Reported Questions.(General Questions)  1) I asked: ‘Are you cold?’  2) She asked: ‘Do you want a drink?’  3) They wanted to know: ‘Can you speak German?’  4) She asked: ‘Ken, are you on duty?’  5) He asked: ‘Nelly, did you say that?’  6) the man asked: ‘Will it take you long to repair the car?’  7) Nick asked: ‘Have you got a double room?’  8) A man asked: ‘May I come in?’  9) Hob asked: ‘Shall I taste your cake?’  10) The teacher asked the pupils: ‘Can you do this exercise?’  11) My mother asked: ‘Will you taste my pie?’  12) He asked: ‘Have you ever been to Venice?’  13) Mrs.Wiggins: ‘James, did you hear what Grandpa said?’  14) My father wanted to know: ‘Will you tell me the truth?’  15)The teacher asked us: ‘Do you understand?’

III. Turn the speaker’s words into Reported Questions.(General Questions) 1) I asked: ‘Are you cold?’ 2) She asked: ‘Do you want a drink?’ 3) They wanted to know: ‘Can you speak German?’ 4) She asked: ‘Ken, are you on duty?’ 5) He asked: ‘Nelly, did you say that?’ 6) the man asked: ‘Will it take you long to repair the car?’ 7) Nick asked: ‘Have you got a double room?’ 8) A man asked: ‘May I come in?’ 9) Hob asked: ‘Shall I taste your cake?’ 10) The teacher asked the pupils: ‘Can you do this exercise?’ 11) My mother asked: ‘Will you taste my pie?’ 12) He asked: ‘Have you ever been to Venice?’ 13) Mrs.Wiggins: ‘James, did you hear what Grandpa said?’ 14) My father wanted to know: ‘Will you tell me the truth?’ 15)The teacher asked us: ‘Do you understand?’

IV. Turn the speaker’s words into Reported Questions.( Special Questions)   1) The policeman asked: ‘What are you doing, men?’  2) She asked: ‘How is your brother?’  3) The woman asked me: ‘What do you want?’  4) Nick asked: ‘Why are you carrying a camera?’  5) An officer asked a girl: ‘What is your name?’  6) I asked the doctor: ‘How many times a day should I take the medicine?’  7) He asked a cinema attendant: ‘What time does the film finish?’  8) The old man asked: ‘How much will the artist pay me?’  9) Pedro asked: ‘How much longer are you staying in England, Olaf?’  10) Grandma asked me: ‘Where is the cup of tea?’  11) Olaf asked: ‘Girls, where are you going for your holidays?’  12) My father asked: ‘When will you get back?’  13) Andrew asked a shop-keeper: ‘How much is that bicycle?’  14) The man asked: ‘When will my watch be repaired?’  15) ‘What time did you get home?’ they asked him.

IV. Turn the speaker’s words into Reported Questions.( Special Questions) 1) The policeman asked: ‘What are you doing, men?’ 2) She asked: ‘How is your brother?’ 3) The woman asked me: ‘What do you want?’ 4) Nick asked: ‘Why are you carrying a camera?’ 5) An officer asked a girl: ‘What is your name?’ 6) I asked the doctor: ‘How many times a day should I take the medicine?’ 7) He asked a cinema attendant: ‘What time does the film finish?’ 8) The old man asked: ‘How much will the artist pay me?’ 9) Pedro asked: ‘How much longer are you staying in England, Olaf?’ 10) Grandma asked me: ‘Where is the cup of tea?’ 11) Olaf asked: ‘Girls, where are you going for your holidays?’ 12) My father asked: ‘When will you get back?’ 13) Andrew asked a shop-keeper: ‘How much is that bicycle?’ 14) The man asked: ‘When will my watch be repaired?’ 15) ‘What time did you get home?’ they asked him.


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Предмет: Английский язык

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Косвенная и прямая речь

Автор: Шукурова Жала Ахырзаман кызы

Дата: 16.12.2019

Номер свидетельства: 532108

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