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Методика преподавания

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Основной задачей системы образования сегодня является обучение молодого поколения иностранным языкам, кардинальное совершенствование системы подготовки специалистов, владеющих этими языками, путем внедрения передовых методов обучения с использованием современных педагогических и информационно-коммуникационных технологий.,
Одним из четырех навыков, необходимых для изучения языка (аудирование, говорение, чтение и письмо), является письмо. Письмо - это система письменных знаков, представляющих звуки, слоги или слова, состоящая из различных механизмов - заглавных букв, орфографии и пунктуации, формы и функции слова. Письмо представляет собой сложную познавательную деятельность, в которой писатель обязан одновременно демонстрировать контроль над переменными. На уровне предложений они включают контроль содержания, формата, структуры предложения, словарного запаса, правописания и формирования букв.

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«Методика преподавания»

Introduction

The role and influence of English in today are gaining a higher speed in the world as well as in Uzbekistan. The main factors for this phenomenon include expanding communication with the world after gaining the independence and increasing speed and scope of information exchange in the global village. The dominant position in the internet space by the language of the published content is firmly held by English, which is a strong motivation to learn English for those who wish to promote their global competences. As it was mentioned since the declaration of independence the importance of the English language has been increasing in all aspects of Uzbek people’s life. Currently, in the Republic of Uzbekistan great attention is given to the radical reorganization of the educational system that will give an opportunity to raise it to the level of modern standards. In order to realize the aims and tasks put forward by the Law of the Republic of Uzbekistan “On Education” (1997) and the “National Programme of Personnel Training” (1997) the complex system of reorganizing the structure and the content of personnel training, proceeding from perspectives of the social, economic development of the society, contemporary achievements of science, culture, technique and technology are being created in the country. Besides On December 10, 2012 The first President of the Republic of Uzbekistan Islam Karimov signed a decree “On measures to further improve foreign language learning system” [1]. It is noted that in the framework of the Law of the Republic of Uzbekistan “On education” [2] and the National Programme for Training [3] in the country, a comprehensive foreign languages’ teaching system, aimed at creating harmoniously developed, highly educated, modern-thinking young generation, further integration of the country to the world community, has been created. According to the decree foreign languages, mainly English, gradually throughout the country will be taught from the first year of schooling in the form of lesson-games and speaking games, continuing to learning the alphabet, reading and spelling in the second year (grade). Also it is envisaged that university modules, especially in technical and international areas, will be offered in English and other foreign languages at higher education institutions. In order to increase teaching standarts in distant rural areas, the higher educational institutions are allowed targeted admission of people living in distant areas to foreign language programs on the condition that they will oblige themselves to work in the acquired specialty at their residence area for at least 5 years after graduation. Since the enforcement of the decree all English language teachers have obtained a privilege of receiving a 15 % (urban areas) or 30 % (rural areas) bonus on top of their monthly salary, if they have reached a level of C1 in CEFR and prove this with an IELTS certificate or a certificate of language proficiency at the National Testing Centre, which was assigned to design tests to check English teacher’s language proficiency. The aim of this is primarily encouraging teachers to upgrade their language levels, which, in essence, is the principal obligation of a language teacher. Nevertheless, this policy has shown its positive impact on the quality of educational staff and has become the main criterion of employment in the country, not only in education but in other spheres as well. This approach helped the Uzbek to understand what level must be acquired to meet the requirements of modern standards. The main reason for the reforms are 1) the international role of the English language, which has evolved into a ‘code’ of communication in various spheres, and 2) globalization, which has opened many new ways for nations to come closer. In addition, another reason based on the analysis of the current system of organizing language learning shows that learning standards, curricula and textbooks do not fully meet the current requirements, particularly in the use of advanced information and media technologies. Education is mainly conducted in traditional methods. Further development of a continuum of foreign languages learning at all levels of education; improving skills of teachers and provision of modern teaching materials are required. New approaches in the system of education also influenced on the learning and teaching of foreign languages, as language is the major factor of person’s development. The National Teleradio Company, State Committee for communications, informatisation and telecommunication technologies, Agency for Press and Information of the Republic of Uzbekistan are tasked to prepare and broadcast language-learning programs, significantly increase access to international educational resources via “Ziyonet” educational network, promote publication of foreign language textbooks, magazines and other materials. And regular training programs shown in the mass media are giving positive results not only in acquisition of knowledge and skills, but also in motivating uzbek children to foreign language learning. The main concentration has become to change the language learning from the traditional Soviet approach of grammar-translation, which was a usual method of teaching English for many years, into a communicative method, practiced worldwide.

Writing is an extremely complex cognitive activity in which the writer is required to demonstrate control of variables simultaneously. At the sentence level, these include control of contents, format, sentence structure, vocabulary, spelling and letter formation. Beyond the sentence, the writer must be able to structure and integrate information into cohesive and coherent paragraph and text. Strong writing skills may enhance students' chances for success. In discussing the significance of writing to learning, writing is an essential factor of language. Any reading and language curriculum must think about the multidimensional nature of writing in instructional practices, evaluation procedures, and language development. Writing is one of the four skills – LSRW (listening, speaking, reading and writing) in language learning. It is the system of written symbols, representing the sounds, syllables or words of language, with different mechanisms - capitalization, spelling and punctuation, word form and function.

Generally, writing is very important that communication is transmitted more through writing than any other type of media. So, Students need effective writing skills to meet their academic needs and workplace requirements.

Students should improve their writing skills, for which teachers have to motivate them to have good writing skills, by providing instruction in writing processes and rules of writing, such as grammar rules and writing practice.

Rationale

Now-a-days, students are lacking writing skills as they spend most of their time in using their equipped smart phones, and they depend on electronic devices or gadgets which provide instant or readymade answers/results available in the internet. They use their valuable time in searching what others are doing, instead of learning the language skills. Naturally students, having good writing skills, are always successful at expressing their ideas and reaching their goals. They should develop the writing skills for their multiple benefits and

success in life. The process of writing is to teach students how to write with coherence, an appropriate grammar structure and an acceptable spelling.





















  1. Peculiarities of teaching English to primary school-age students

All adults remember the poems and songs learned as children. It is worth remembering one line - and the whole poem immediately pops up in memory. It happens because the little child has a very good long-term memory. Everything he taught is remembered for a long time. But the operative memory is worse developed. It takes time before a child learns to extract information from memory at first demand, before he or she can move from recognition of language units to their meaningful use. In doing so, it is necessary to use the advantages of children's memory, for example, the strength of memory. The child is able to remember the language material in whole blocks, as if to "imprint" it into memory. But this only happens when he or she has the appropriate setting and it is important to remember the material. The easiest way to memorize it is in the game. If a child needs to perform some kind of speech action in order to succeed in the game, it is mastered almost effortlessly. The game creates excellent natural conditions for mastering the language at any age, but in the younger school age it is especially productive. At this age, the game is a way of familiarizing with the adult world, a way of learning. The more children are immersed in the atmosphere of the game with unpredictable results, but by clear rules, the more successful the training will be. Do not be afraid that "too much", playing children will not learn to be serious and responsible about learning. The child is very good at distinguishing the fictional world from the real world and transfers the skills acquired in the game, to really important activities.

To create a communicative environment in the classroom, it is important to maintain a high level of activity for each child. Even those who seemingly remain silent can be busy with hard thinking: thinking about their arguments, comprehending the statements of their interlocutors, etc. It is not easy to create such an environment. This should be the subject of special care by the teacher: to mobilize the attention of all those present with the additional task of extracting and using information from the dialogue or monologue of friends, commenting on the content of their classmates' speeches, etc.

It is advisable to correct mistakes so as not to offend the student, who at this age shifts the assessment of his or her actions to the assessment of himself or herself as a person. Fixing attention to mistakes can discourage any interest in English lessons. Therefore, it is important that the correction of mistakes takes place as a certain stage in the game, for example, by helping a friend who has been accepted in most children's games, and that the child who has made a mistake is given an opportunity to correct it.

It should be remembered that when evaluating children's communication skills, the teacher primarily evaluates their progress. The best criterion for evaluation may be the progress of each child in the development of language and speech skills. Even the smallest victory should be noticed and appreciated, it is important to remember that the interest in learning the language is often lost when the feeling of success disappears.

When evaluating children's work in class, attention should be paid to both weak and strong students. The former should be rewarded for their perseverance, even if their success is modest in relation to that of other children. It is important to give them occasional assignments that they are likely to cope with: once they feel successful, they will mobilize all their strengths and abilities and try to catch up with the more capable children.

For strong children, it is important that working with the weak does not hinder their progress. They need to be given tasks that require thought and imagination.

One of the problems of teaching a foreign language is the distance between the student and the country of the language being taught. Previously, the teaching of foreign language communication was structured in such a way that pupils had to stage communication in a foreign language through role-playing, dialogues, etc. The use of ICTs solves this problem by expanding the classroom and allowing in foreign-language reality via the Internet. Communication with native speakers becomes easier and more accessible, visible and audible. The information obtained is relevant and authentic. All this increases the motivation to learn a foreign language and contributes to achieving the goal of learning.

The use of ICT in a foreign language lesson opens up new prospects for greater individualization of learning, for the widespread use of forms of paired and group work (via the Internet), and learning to read and write acquires new meaning.

Using ICTs, project-oriented learning has different content and different perspectives. The Internet makes it possible to establish direct contacts with native speakers. E-mail projects contribute to the formation of intercultural competence and the strengthening of mutual understanding and friendship between peoples. The use of ICTs promotes the development of general learning skills, such as "the ability to set non-standard learning objectives in the classroom and, at the same time, to find non-stereotypical ways of solving them". As well as "broad cognitive motives (interest in knowledge), students also form cognitive motives (interest in ways of acquiring knowledge)".

New information and communication technologies should contribute to "creating a better world in which everyone benefits from the advances of education, science, culture and communication". ICTs have a huge impact on education as they "open up entirely new ways of teaching and learning".

The use of computer technologies in school-based learning practices should be based on general didactic principles, the main ones being:

- The principle of "from simple to complex": the progressive sophistication of the elements of information and communication technologies used;

- The principle of taking into account the age-specific characteristics of children and their language skills;

- The principle of individualization and differentiation of learning.

Thus, the introduction of computer technologies creates prerequisites for the intensification of the educational process. They allow the practical use of psychological and pedagogical developments, which provide a transition from the mechanical assimilation of knowledge to mastering the ability to independently acquire new knowledge. Computer technologies contribute to the discovery, preservation and development of personal qualities of students.

The computer also provides comprehensive (current, boundary, and final) control of the educational process. Control, as it is known, is an integral part of the educational process and serves as a feedback between the student and the teacher. When using a computer to control the quality of students' knowledge, a more objective assessment is achieved. In addition, computer control allows to save time, as the simultaneous testing of knowledge of all students is carried out. This allows the teacher to pay more attention to the creative aspects of working with students.

It should be noted that the computer removes such a negative psychological factor as anxiety.

During traditional classroom activities, various factors (pronunciation defects, fear of making a mistake, inability to formulate their thoughts aloud, etc.) do not allow many students to show their real knowledge. Being alone with the display, the student, as a rule, does not feel constrained and tries to show the maximum of his knowledge.

A characteristic feature of children of primary school age is the gradual change of the leading activity, the transition from playing activity to learning activity. The game still retains its leading role. Therefore, the game should become the basis for the development of students' learning skills.

The use of play activities in the classroom and in extracurricular activities contributes to cognitive and creative activity of students, develops their thinking, memory, fosters initiative, allows to overcome boredom in learning a foreign language. The games develop intelligence and attention, enrich the language and strengthen the students' vocabulary, and focus on the shades of their meaning. The game will help the student to remember the material learned, enrich their knowledge.

The use of playful methods in English lessons fosters a playful culture; justifies the teacher's requirement to communicate in English with the teacher and classmates; makes it possible for students to make communicatively significant phrases based on simple grammatical models; psychologically justifies and makes the repetition of the same speech models and standard dialogues emotionally attractive.

Thus, we come to the conclusion that the following aspects should be taken into account when selecting modern methods of teaching foreign languages:

- To create an atmosphere in which the student feels comfortable and free, to stimulate the interests of the student;

- to affect the personality of the student as a whole, to involve in the learning process his emotions and feelings, to stimulate his creativity;

- to activate the student's activities;

- provide for different forms of classroom work: individual, group, collective; which stimulate activity, independence, creativity of the learner;

- The playful form is created through playful techniques and situations that act as a means of stimulating and stimulating learning activities.

The main goal of foreign language teaching is to develop the communicative competence of students in all types of speech activities: listening, speaking, reading and writing. Writing is not considered as the main objective of secondary school curricula. Writing is considered to be a learning tool that promotes oral and reading skills and abilities.

Recently, however, writing has become more and more important and relevant, as various international programmes and projects are now being developed and international connections are becoming stronger and more diverse. Writing skills are essential for taking international exams when applying to a job or university abroad. More and more often it is necessary to fill in various questionnaires and forms in a foreign language, to write texts of telegrams. Many companies require the ability to process official correspondence. Equally important is the ability to write correctly and logically in unofficial correspondence, especially now that the Internet is a very popular medium of communication worldwide. Thus, I believe that the relevance of the issue of the importance of learning to write becomes more and more obvious every day.

Therefore, the school curriculum provides not only for the development of calligraphy and spelling skills, but also for the development of the ability to express one's thoughts in writing.

The role of writing in teaching a foreign language is great. Writing helps to organize the whole educational process correctly. At the initial stage, students acquire the skills of calligraphic writing of letters and words learned in oral speech and encountered in exercises. Mastering graphics and spelling is the goal of mastering the writing technique in a new language for students at the beginning. Writing continues to be an important means of mastering language material (lexical and grammatical) and developing reading and speaking skills.

Written speech itself makes communication mediated by text, because written speech is nothing but speech that uses written signs. Therefore, a characteristic feature of written speech is a greater concentration of content, a more careful selection of language tools compared to spoken language. Of course, written speech appears later and is based on oral speech. This applies to its development both in society and in the life of the individual. Writing not only makes it easier for students to answer questions about the meaning of the text, but also contributes to a more thoughtful reading.

Writing in its educational function takes the form of written exercises, which contribute to the consolidation of lexical and grammatical material in the memory of students, both at the level of its structural development and at a more advanced stage. However, writing in general education schools is given little time because of the limited possibilities of its practical application.

But writing takes a lot of time in class. Therefore, most of the written works, of course, are carried out by students at home, in the mode of independent work, and for this purpose students should be prepared in advance in the classroom. Such training includes mastering the appropriate language material, as well as the necessary instruction in previous lessons regarding the methods of written exercises of one type or another.

Written instruction in the different stages of the course takes place as follows

(a) In the junior level, the students are taught the necessary graphic automatisms. The linguistic component includes graphics, spelling and recording (cheating, reproduction, production). Written speech is offered in a limited amount - filling in a questionnaire, a form, writing a postcard or a short letter according to a sample.

b) Starting from the 5th grade, writing training is aimed at long-term development of the corresponding language phenomena. In the 6th and 7th grade and 8th grade, written exercises are only carried out at home. They are aimed at further strengthening the language material studied in the given period, and also contribute to better understanding of the topic.

Generally, writing is very important that communication is transmitted more through writing than any other type of media. So, Students need effective writing skills to meet their academic needs and workplace requirements. Students should improve their writing skills, for which teachers have to motivate them to have good writing skills, by providing instruction in writing processes and rules of writing, such as grammar rules and writing practice.

Process Approach stresses writing activities which move learners from the generation of ideas and the collection of data through to the publication of a finished text.

According to the above definitions, Process approach is learner-centered in which learners’ needs, expectations, goals, learning styles, skills and knowledge are taken into consideration.

Process Approach is one of the approaches, such as Lexical Approach, Literature Based Approach, Grammar - Based Approach, Situational Approach, Structural Approach, Genre Approach, Task-Based Approach, and Product Approach in developing the language learning skills. Comparing to other approaches, Process Approach has more advantages. Developing the language learning skills is not like the construction of a wall, but like the growth of a plant, taking its own time. No skill can be mastered overnight. Process Approach involves eight consecutive stages of writing strategies that enable learners to write freely and produce texts of good quality.





























  1. Methods of teaching writing skills

Stages of Writing

According to Steele, Process Approach involves eight stages - Brainstorming,

Planning/Structuring, Mind mapping, Writing the first draft, Peer feedback, Editing, Final draft and Evaluation and teachers’ feedback.

• Stage-1: Ideas are generated by brain storming and discussion in Stage-I

• Stage-2: Learners extend their ideas into a note form and judge quality and usefulness of ideas.

• Stage-3: This stage helps learners make the relationship of ideas understandable- organizing their ideas into mind map or linear form.

• Stage-4: In this stage, students prepare first draft in the classroom usually in pairs or groups.

• Stage-5: Then drafts are exchanged for students’ reading and responding from each other’s works. In this way, students develop an awareness of the fact.

• Stage-6: Considering the feedback of other students, drafts are improved with necessary changes.

• Stage-7: Finally, students prepare the final draft with necessary changes.

• In Stage-8, the final draft is evaluated by the teachers providing a feedback on it. Students get benefitted using this process approach as:

• Process Approach is learner - centered.

• Students can show their latent abilities in writing process.

• Learners build up their power of thinking and creativity.

• They understand the importance and value of developing their writing skills.

• They can concentrate on strategies and processes of writing with their own abilities and potentials.

• They are enabled to reach their objective and purpose.

For decades now, English has been the language of global communication: it has been used in every corner of the globe for both business and informal communication. Therefore, many parents today believe that children should be taught English from an early age: it will be like a "second mother tongue". Is that so? Is it worth learning to speak a foreign language for a child with a diaper? Who better to hire as a teacher for the baby? The answers to these questions - in our article.

First of all, it should be said that early childhood is divided into two conditional periods, in each of which the acquisition of language (and all the information about the world) is characterized by its characteristics. Up to three years old, the child only has a vocabulary. At this stage, he or she can only perceive the speech around him or her, process it and reproduce it. In short, up to the age of three, learning by immersion is all that is possible: if the child is surrounded by English-speaking people, he or she will start speaking English on his or her own.

Around the age of three, a so-called linguistic breakthrough occurs and a period of active oral development begins. In preschool age, the child absorbs more and more information like a sponge. In this case, he can already focus on some time, there is perseverance, the ability to think logically. The most, perhaps, grateful time for the beginning of purposeful studying of a foreign language. But, of course, not only with the help of rote rules and revealing language patterns. How else can we do it?

Below there are several methods and tools of teaching preschoolers English.

If a baby is surrounded by people speaking different languages from birth, he or she will speak both languages equally well. Numerous scientific studies prove that bilinguals are particularly flexible and creative.

Zaitsev's method

One of the most famous and widespread. Contains in teaching your child to read and be able to write words with the help of special "grammar" cubes and systematizing tables. Dice of different colors are used: first, the study of letters and training of word-writing, then - sentences. The combination of vivid clarity and a playful element makes the method an excellent solution for learning English with the youngest students. Zaitsev's method helps to build algorithms for applying the rules studied and teaches to look for patterns in the lessons of other subjects.

Doman's methodology

Although the Glenn Doman method has been applicable since infancy, learning English with it is particularly effective since the age of 4. Special information cards are used, the content of which is shown to the child and at the same time is spoken out loud. First, the lessons are very short - a minute or two, but the material is repeated many times until the information is firmly fixed. This method can be called "imprinting". When the child grows up, it is possible to enter game elements with cards, then show presentations and videos.

Playing method

It is very suitable for preschoolers and can be adapted to any age. In games you can learn how to grammar and phonetics, and practice the skill of communication. The essence of the technique is clear from the name: all training takes place in the natural gameplay process. Highlight the game:

Role (situational). These games play out scenes - models of real situations. They are divided into reproductive, i.e. repetitive, and improvisational ones. In the first case, children represent a typical situation and dialogue in it, in the second case they use a creative approach, inventing their own scenario.

The competition is based on the principle of "who is better? Who will guess the crossword puzzle faster? Who will make the most interesting story? Who will do all the commands correctly? Encouraging children to compete helps them to learn the material more quickly, to show more effort in mastering grammar rules and speech practice.

Creative. This type of activity develops not only language skills, but also artistic prerequisites. There are several types of creative games:

Word games - writing poems, songs, stories;

Dramatic - staging small scenes first, then plays;

Pictorial - coloring, drawing, graphic dictation.

Musical. Studying songs, dances. The use of musical accompaniment helps to consolidate the rhythm of speech, to hear its melody, and motor activity and the ability to communicate will diversify the learning process.

Project method

Applicable for children 5-6 years old. Children together with the teacher choose a theme for the project, perform tasks during several sessions, collect information, connect creative approach. In addition to the language content, the projects teach the child independence, the ability to search for material and to combine disparate knowledge into a logical chain.

Immersion in a language environment

Communication with the child is in English only. At first, the lessons can be very short, and then, as the skill develops, they can be lengthened. It is useful to combine the practice with everyday activities, such as washing and eating breakfast, commenting on activities, or discussing the day before during a walk. Visual materials (cards, tables) can be used to help.

Combined method

As the name implies, this method mixes all the previous ones at the discretion of the teacher: from games to serious projects. Plus, it has a variety of approaches and a wide range of tools for the lessons.

Tools for lessons with preschoolers

While there is enough textbook for adults to learn English, the entertainment component of the lessons is very important for children: it not only helps to keep attention, but also makes the learning process more effective.

Picture books. For the youngest - bright picture books, as well as letters and words for older children - with folk songs, fairy tales, short stories. Illustrations will diversify the activity, will not get bored and will help to imaginatively present the written words.

Phonics and phonetic games. Short video clips, audio tracks, cards, speeches - everything that will help to practice the correct pronunciation.

Cartoons in English. Muzzy, Baby Einstein, Super Why! Heroes of these cartoons will not only love their children their adventures, but also teach the basics of grammar, exercise with the baby in pronunciation and phrases.

Working notebooks and notepads. Big Red Bus, I love English - these educational materials combine clarity and practice. Almost all workbooks are supplemented with audio materials. The use of the tool will allow you to supplement your vocabulary, develop your creative approach to learning the language, train in writing, but it makes sense to use them with children aged 5-6 years.

Reasonable use of any tools will increase the level of interest of the young student and facilitate the format of the lessons.
























  1. Advantages and disadvantages of teaching writing to children.

Today's parents are increasingly trying to start their children's education as early as possible: they bring their children to early childhood development centres, enroll them in additional classes or study at home, considering it useful for their child's further development. Learning a foreign language is one of the three most popular areas.

Indeed, teachers believe that early learning of a foreign language has many advantages:

  • gives new sources of information about the world around you;

  • contributes to the development of communicative skills;

  • develops logical and spatial thinking;

  • gives a broader notion of phonemic diversity;

  • Facilitates the learning of other subjects in the future;

Train memory.

But we should not forget about the pitfalls. It is very easy to overload a child in preschool age with information, which will affect not only the effectiveness of the lessons, but also the further motivation. You also need to ensure that the baby does not replace the concept of one language with another. And of course, it is important that the baby learns the correct pronunciation, and for this it will be a great solution to learn "firsthand".

Early English learning is a great way to give more knowledge about the world from childhood and to prepare your child for the future life in a globalized world where language boundaries are erased. But it is important that learning English is fun and does not interfere with a child's normal development. A reasonable solution may be to hire a nanny with knowledge of English in the family.

Before teaching children written language skills, I often tell them that written language is on 3 whales:

vocabulary (a defect in this area leads to the student not being able to express his or her thoughts);

Knowledge of grammatical, lexical and stylistic rules of building a foreign language;

application of this knowledge in practice.

I. Lexicon.

There are different types of exercises to work with vocabulary, for example, guess the encrypted word, dictation, lexical tests, chinework, crossword puzzles, etc.

I pay very serious attention to the mastery of vocabulary. I often use game technology in my lessons. Writing should not be intrusive, but it is necessary to actively comprehend the alphabet of the letter. Children learn it through game technology.

14 ACTIVITIES TO IMPROVE KIDS’ WRITING SKILLS

1. READ UP

Regular reading is a stepping stone to better writing and helps kids’ strengthen their writing skills. It helps expand children’s vocabulary and shows them different ways of using words. This also makes it easier for them to use these words in their own writing.

With younger children, make sure you’re reading together every day and encouraging their love of reading as they grow. Start reading early—many children who devour books grow up to become strong writers themselves.

2. MAKE IT FUN!

Play games and activities that encourage writing. Crossword puzzles and word games are great for everyone. Little ones will especially like the “write the word” game: where they search for items and write down the word when they find each item.

3. CREATE WRITING WORKSHEETS

For young children just learning to write, try creating a worksheet where they can trace letters and words. Write out letters and words, place another piece of paper on top, and have your child trace onto the blank piece of paper. You can also create a connect-the-dots game by having your child trace along dotted lines and then tell you which letter or word she or he finds.

4. TRY DIFFERENT MATERIALS

Switch it up by writing with something other than a pen or pencil. Sidewalk chalk on the driveway, finger painting, or a salt writing tray are all fun writing activities that will also help build kids’ writing skills.

5. WRITE LETTERS

Today, writing letters is a bit of a lost art. Encourage your child to write letters to friends or family members. Distant family members will especially love receiving handwritten letters and it’s a great way to work on improving writing skills for kids.

Pen-pals are also a fun idea, or you can even write letters to each other and leave them around the house to find!

6. ENCOURAGE JOURNALLING

Keeping a journal is a great way to express thoughts and ideas while also working on improving children’s writing skills. Plan an outing to pick a fun journal with your child and encourage them to write in it as much as possible. Make it a part of his or her daily routine.

7. CREATE A WRITING SPACE

Set aside a little corner in your house that is completely devoted to writing. Having an area dedicated solely to writing will help free your child from distractions so he or she can focus on practicing writing skills.

8. INVEST TIME

Make sure your child knows you’re available to help with spelling or proofreading whenever he or she needs it. When you make writing time a priority for you, it will make it easier for your child to improve his or her writing skills.

9. CONNECT THEIR INTERESTS

Think about your son or daughter’s favourite book series. Or maybe he or she is obsessed with dinosaurs. Whatever his or her interests, connect them to writing. Have your child write a new short story about his or her favourite characters, or let him or her create a story all about dinosaurs.

10. CREATE STORY PROMPTS

A fun way to improve kids’ creative writing skills is to have them write short stories.

Cut out pictures from a magazine with different characters or locations, or write down different words. Place these in a container or glue them to cards to use as writing prompts for creating a unique story. This also makes a fun activity for the whole family to join in.

11. MODEL IT

There’s no better way to learn something than to see someone else doing it. Let your children see you writing, often. When writing is a normal part of your daily life, it will come more naturally to them. Anything goes: a simple grocery list or letter to the teacher, holiday or thank you cards, or even a sweet note to your child.

12. USE TECHNOLOGY TO YOUR ADVANTAGE

There’s no getting around the fact that technology plays a huge part in our lives. Use it to your advantage by having your child create a blog. This can help your child work on improving his or her writing skills by encouraging frequent writing habits.

13. MAKE IT PART OF YOUR DAILY ROUTINE

Make sure there’s time each day to do some writing in one way or another. Whether it’s writing a grocery list, writing in a journal or composing a letter, practicing writing every day will go a long way to improving kids’ writing skills.

14. PRAISE THEIR WORK

Show lots of interest in your child’s writing and stories. Ask questions, celebrate when he or she brings home a good piece from school, and encourage his or her writing as much as possible.

IMPROVING WRITING SKILLS CAN BE FUN






  1. Teaching writing through games

Let's consider one of these techniques when teaching and fixing the vocabulary in primary school on the topic "Animals". They evoke positive feelings among students and a strong desire to change the situation for the better. This, in turn, makes them concentrate their attention and train their memory.

Theme "Animals"

Game number one: "Walk" your pet.

To do this, children need to write the right word. If they can't, they won't be walking or walking for a while if there's a mistake in the word. Children are worried about their pets, and a common mistake in the word is corrected, which means a full walk for the pet, for children - a sense of "duty fulfilled", and for the teacher - to achieve the goal (children learned to write the word).

Game #2: "Help". Animals were captured by Indians or poachers. They need to be saved. They sit in cages. To release them, you need to spell them or write a code to the castle. The code, as you have already guessed, is the spelling of the word.

Game #3: At the zoo repair. Need to resettle the animals. This is offered to the zoo employees. Children are these workers. Who will take a beast to his home temporarily to live.

Game number 4: In the circus. The animals have hidden themselves and do not want to perform. They got sick. The audience is worried. The animals need to be treated, given a pill. He who is given, will enter the arena. The word that pupils have to write and will be a "cure" in this game.

I will use the next game trick if you need to remember a difficult word to write. For example, "friend". I suggest that children go one by one to the blackboard and write only one letter. If a child makes a mistake, then I, of course, together with other children, correct it. At the same time, children's attention is focused on the complexity of writing words.

In the middle part of the work with the vocabulary can be diversified by guessing the crossword puzzles.

They are a quick and effective way to control the study of vocabulary.

II. Knowledge of grammatical, lexical and stylistic rules of building a foreign language.

The second "whale" to which constant attention is paid is the formation and further development of grammatical and stylistic skills of written speech. In order to achieve a high level of written language skills, a lot of effort needs to be put into writing at an early stage.

Children learn writing from the second grade onwards. Once they have learned to write letters and letters, they consciously write new sentences from words, following a certain order of English sentence construction. For this purpose, pictures and certain signs are used, which are known to pupils from Russian language lessons.

I am a supporter of the fact that students should not repeat grammatical structures as a poem after the teacher. He should know why, for example, in the sentence "A dog can swim. It is the word -A dog - that comes first. It is possible to explain the rule of building an English sentence from the participants of the educational process - schoolchildren. They are called up to the blackboard and given the roles of "subject", "predicted" and other members of the sentence. Children remember well on such a live example of how to speak English correctly. The next step is to work on the skills acquired in the learning process. Children write down such live sentences in their notebooks.

We often write sentences out of words that are chaotically attached to the whiteboard in the form of pictures (with an interactive whiteboard, this work is more varied and varied). When they learn how to make oral sentences, we write them down in a notebook. Such tasks are then complicated by entering additional or unnecessary words. Each error is discussed at once and with explanations. Children need to constantly point out their mistakes and pay attention to them. They know the rule, but it is difficult for them to apply them in practice. As homework, I suggest that children do similar tasks themselves or pick up pictures to practice writing sentences in subsequent lessons, but without any prior work. This is how I achieve automated writing of sentences. And then the children learn how to make up stories from the sentences.

Writing skills development as a guarantee of successful preparation for the tests (high school)

The final requirements in the field of writing are the development of the students' ability to express their thoughts in writing. At the end of the basic course, students should be able to communicate in the most typical situations:

- Make extracts from the text;

- Draw up and write down a plan for the text that has been read or listened to;

- Write a short congratulation

Games can be powerful tools that significantly boost personal development, learning achievement, and school success if:

1. The games are specially designed to develop important abilities or teach specific skills or concepts. When a collection of games is organized to cover a complete subject, then the games become a tremendous support system that practically assures success. This is particularly true when a quick test and recording system provides the tracking of each player’s progress and continually pinpoints his or her best current learning opportunities. It also makes sure no important writing skills are missed. What advantage can this be for your child? Well, consider that even a 5% increase in learning rate during a child’s school career can result in a three-year advantage by the end of high school due to the power of compounding! Truly, even small differences can result in greatly increased success opportunities!

2. The games are designed to put into instant action powerful teaching methods and particular learning principles, conditions, and strategies that would best teach or develop each specific skill or concept. This means parents do not have to be professional teachers or learning experts to provide the best learning conditions for their children. Even professional teachers at school can extend their impact to additional individuals and small groups within the classroom without one-to-one assistance and still be assured each learning activity is appropriate, effective, and targeted to specific learning objectives.  An added advantage is that players become increasingly aware of the power of learning strategies and start making it a habit to apply these same principles in other learning situations.

3. The games are fun! This means players will want to spend many extra hours developing the skills the games are targeted to achieve. Time spent playing the games will not be experienced as work or study!

4. The games are instantly available and require no hard-to-store pieces. The best games are game ideas that use items that are usually around anyway, like paper, pencils, dice, cards, etc. This means players have instant access to all of the games and do not need to learn complex instructions.

5. The games are economical and you do not need to continually buy new ones as your child progresses from grade to grade. 

Draw what you want - For a certain time period, players may communicate only through pictures. If they want something, they have to draw a picture of it. If they want to do something, they must draw a picture of it. No words allowed.

Penmanship

Letter hook-ups - Two players use one sheet of paper. Players each write or print the letters of the alphabet scattered about on the sheet of paper. They then take turns drawing a line connecting matching letters. For example, from one b to the other b. A player loses the game if he runs into or crosses a line or letter already drawn. Player able to make the last successful hook-up wins. A single player may play by preparing his playing sheet and then trying to go through the alphabet in order connecting the letters without touching any lines. The last letter he is able to get to successfully is his score. Next time he tries to get a higher letter or the entire alphabet.

Spelling

Write until wrong - Players start writing a list of words. They may write any words they choose, but must stop when they misspell a word. If in doubt whether a player has mad a spelling error, consult a dictionary. Count the number of words spelled correctly before the first mistake. That is the player’s score. When everyone is ready, start a new round with and have players write new lists. Players could try to beat their previous best scores or could by to win the game by achieving a higher score than the other players. Alternatives include choosing categories of words that may be included on lists, such as five-letter words, items you could buy in a store, colors, adjectives, verbs, etc. The same basic game could be played by having players write stories until they make their first spelling mistake, and then counting the words successfully written.

Grammar

Cooperative stories - Players try to write a story together with the rule being that each player may write only one word on each of his turns. No talking about either the sentences or story is allowed. Each word added must fit what has been written before and be in correct sentence structure. When finished, read the story aloud for enjoyment.

Exact-number sentences - Group decides on a series of numbers, such as 5, 8, 3, 4, 7, 6, 2, 9.  First player to write a story in which the number of words in each sentence equals the numbers listed and in the same order, wins. With the example above, the first sentence must contain 5 words. No more, no less. The second sentence must contain exactly 8 words, and so on.

Punctuation and Capitalization

Punctuation stories - Copy the punctuation marks you find in a paragraph, story, or newspaper article.  Now, try to write the beginning of a story using those same punctuation marks in the same order you found them.  Try it with the punctuation marks below:

. , , . . " , " , " . " . , .

Capitalization stories - Copy the capital letters only you find in a paragraph, story, or newspaper article.  Now, try to write the beginning of a story using those same capital letters used appropriately and in the same order you found them.  Try it with the capital letters below:

O  T  C  I  M  M  C  O  M  M  M  M

Clear and Effective Writing

Gossip - One player reads a story in a book and then tries to write the story himself.  Next player reads the first player's written story, then turns it over and tries to write that story.  Third player reads what the second player wrote, turns it over and tries to write the same story, etc.  This continues until all players have had a chance to write the story.  Have a lot of fun reading the original story and attempts to duplicate it out loud in the same order they were written.

Write what you want - Each morning have your child write a list of things he or she wants to do that day.  The list should be in sentences such as:  "After breakfast I want to go to Billy's house."  "This afternoon I want to go swimming."  Help him spell any words he needs.  When he is finished, have him read the list to you.

Creativity

Story titles by chance - Players first create a set of story possibilities as shown below.  Throwing two dice, a player by chance determines his story assignment.  For example:  he rolls the dice and it adds up to 4 the first time.  He rolls the dice again and it comes up 7.  His story title becomes, "An Old Shoe's Problem."  Creating the titles and experiencing the many story possibilities is a fun way to develop creative thought.

FIRST THROW

2 - An Apple's

3 - My Grandfather's

4 - An Old Shoe's

5 - A Dog's

6 - My Pet Monster's

7 - The Stranger's

8 - My TV's

9 - The Hero's

10 - My Enemy's

11 - The Policeman's

12 - Dad's Favorite Chair's

SECOND THROW

2 - Dream

3 - Secret

4 - Birthday Party

5 - Best Friend

6 - Biggest Worry

7 - Problem

8 - Finest Hour

9 - Reward

10 - Plan for Success

11 - Story of Courage

12 - Strange Past


Make it a Family Tradition to Take Time to Write - Make it a habit in your family to schedule special time for writing. You might call this SWATT (Sustained Writing and Thinking Time). There are many ways to use this time, including writing in your journal, writing appreciation notes, making written requests and plans, poetry, letter exchanges, family newsletter, putting your thoughts in writing, etc. Think of occasions when special letters, notes, or cards would add to the lives of other people.  The list should include:  birthdays, holidays, anniversaries, when someone is ill or away, congratulations, etc.  Prepare a calendar to remind everyone of dates when letters or cards should be sent.  Try to make each letter or card special.  As a family, bring in some of the letters received and share them and personal feelings about receiving them.

Writing — it’s an important form of communication and a key part of education. But in today’s technology-driven world, kids aren’t given many opportunities to practise and improve their ability to write. This leaves many parents wondering how to improve their child’s writing skills.

It takes time to develop strong writing skills, and it can be a tough task to accomplish. Thankfully, there are many things that parents can do at home to help improve children’s writing skills.

From fun activities to daily reading and writing sessions, these tips on how to improve kids’ writing skills will help your child build his or her skills in no time.

Writing is an important practical life skill. While developing great writing skills requires lots of time and patience, you can help your child with these simple writing exercises for kids.

Lots of reading, frequent writing time in a special writing area, and incorporating fun writing activities and games will all go a long way to giving writing skills a boost.

Drawing and Scribbling: One way to help children develop their writing skills is by allowing them to draw pictures or make marks on the page to convey a message. Start by reading a story, such as Little Rabbit's Story, and ask them to draw a picture of their favorite character or part of the story. Invite each child to tell you about their picture, and what they would say in words about the picture. You can record each child’s message by writing their words on the page and then help them read what was dictated.

Writing with a Shared Pen: As you help children build confidence and skills with writing, allow them to share a pen to add known letters in words they recognize. If a child wants to write about a dog and knows the letter D, allow him or her to write that letter on the page and then share the pen with other kids. Over time, you can adjust the amount of letters that students write according to their mastery of letter identification and writing.

Retelling Narrative Texts in Groups: You can have a small guided reading group practice retelling a narrative text, such as My Noisy House. While reading the story with the group, you can model specific reading skills such as where to start reading on a page, using punctuation to determine inflection, and rereading a sentence for accuracy. Then you can have students practice retelling by drawing pictures that correspond to the main events of My Noisy House. Once this is completed, you can encourage kids to take turns rereading their illustrated stories. You can do this with additional fun narrative texts from the Kaleidoscope Collection, Joy Cowley Early Birds, or the Joy Cowley Collection.

Using Alphabet Books as a Template: Phonics and phonemic awareness are necessary components of reading and writing because kids need to learn what sounds match the letters they see in print. You can teach these explicitly in a planned mini-lesson or when an opportunity arises during guided reading or writing. A great way to help children with learning letter sounds and writing is by associating letters with particular words in Letter Buddies Starters. You can make sheets with similar sentences seen on each page and provide a space for students to illustrate and make meaning for a sentence like Here is a ball.

Making Animal Books for Kids: Helping kids make their own animal alphabet book is another fun activity to use to help improve writing. To make an easy animal book, have each child find the words of animals whose first letter corresponds with the letters of the alphabet. To encourage practice with sight words in sentences, you can encourage students to repeat a simple sentence structure while changing the name of the animal as they move through the alphabet. For example, I see the anteater. I see the buffalo. You can use animal books for kids within Zoozoo Into the Wild or Zoozoo Animal World as anchor texts.

Having Fun with Names: Focusing students' attention on proper nouns, like a child’s name, or common nouns, such as cat or dad, is an easy way to introduce children to how words work. For instance, my grandson’s name is Blake. Although he is only 3 years old, he can verbally spell his name and makes attempts to write his name by copying from a model. With uppercase and lowercase magnetic letters, I have shown him how he can make other words that rhyme with his name to help pave the way for him to develop a list of words he can read and write. By replacing the letters B and L with different consonants, the chunk -ake can be made into new words, such as bake, lake, cake, make, take, etc. You'll see how much fun kids have with activities like this because they are in control of building new words from known words and word parts.
















Conclusion and recommendations

In conclusion, it is to realize that writing is an extremely complex cognitive activity in which the writer is required to demonstrate control of variables simultaneously. Strong writing skills may enhance students' chances for success. Writing is an essential factor of language. Process approach is learner-centered in which learners’ needs, expectations, goals, learning styles, skills and knowledge are taken into consideration. Students are benefitted using this process approach.

It is the teacher’s responsibility to develop writing tasks for young learners that are enjoyable, full of practice, meaningful, purposeful, social and supported. Challenging your learners and exploiting collaborative opportunities all combine to provide a learning environment where writing is both valued and enjoyed.

It has been proved from the experiment that online games can be used as a language teaching tool in teaching English grammar effectively and change the wrong notion the students have on English grammar classes. Hence it is proved that the teacher is highly motivated to make use of ICT in his classroom and make teaching learning student-oriented. It is suggested from this action research that language teachers should have favorable attitude towards using internet and showcase the downloaded audio and video materials, games, PowerPoint presentations, etc. in the language classroom.

To sum up, writing isn’t rocket science. It’s a basic skill that can be practiced over and over again. With your help, your students can become better and better as the time passes. As mentioned earlier, you play a huge role in their education and in their skills development process.

The moment you decide that you want to take a bigger responsibility concerning your student’s writing aptitudes, you will be one step closer to what you want to achieve with them. Try different types of motivation techniques and instructions, and observe what’s working best for your students. You CAN truly make a difference, and you should!


References

1. J. Jalolov, G.T. Makhkamova, Sh. S. Ashurov “English Language teaching methodology”, Tashkent,2015

2. Жалолов Ж.Ж. Чет тил ўқитиш методикаси: Чет тиллар олий ўқув юртлари талабалари учун дарслик. – Т.,Ўқитувчи, 1996.

3.J. Jalolov, G.T. Makhkamova, Sh. S. Ashurov “English Language teaching methodology”, Tashkent,2015

4.Турдиева К. У. The role of teaching English in the period of modernization in Uzbekistan // Молодой ученый. — 2018. — №44. — С. 294-296.

5. David Nunan. “Language teaching methodology”. A textbook for teachers., Prentice Hall., Oxford, 1991.

6. Reid, J. M. (2001). The Cambridge guide to teaching English to speakers of

other languages. In R. Cater & D. Nunan (Ed.), Writing (p.23-33).

Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

7. Silva, T. (1990). Second language writing: Research insights for the classroom.

Steele, V. (1992). Product and process writing: a comparison. Rowley:

Newbury House.

8. Steele, V. (2004). Product and process writing. Retrieved on 5th Sept. 2010

from http://www.englishonline.org.cn/en/teachers/ workshops/

teaching-writing/teaching-tips/product-process

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Предмет: Английский язык

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Автор: Ganiyeva Shaxnoza Ziyavitdinovna

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