The Russian Federation (Russia) is the world`s largest country in area. It extends from the Arctic Ocean to the Black Sea and from the Baltic Sea to the Pacific Ocean. It is located in Europe and Asia. Its total area is over 17 million square kilometers. Russia borders many countries, such as Finland, the Ukraine, the Baltic States, Kazakhstan, China, and others. The surface of Russia is various. You can see lowlands and highlands, forests and wide grasslands on its territory. The longest mountain chains are the Urals, which separate Europe and Asia, the Caucasus, the Altai. There are different climatic zones on the vast area of this country. Russia has abundant natural resources. The population of Russia is over 150million people. Most of Russia`s people are ethnic Russians, but more than 100 minority nationalities also live in this country. The European part of the country is densely populated. The official language of the country is Russian. The head of the state is the President, who is the commander-in-chief of the armed forces. The Russian flag was adopted in 1991. It has three horizontal stripes which symbolize:
white - the earth, blue - the sky, red - the freedom. Besides, the Russian flag, there is another national symbol of Russia - two-headed eagle.
Тhe United States of America
The United States of America is the fourth largest country in the world in area. It covers a large territory of about 9,400,000 square kilometers in the central and southern part of North America, extending from the Atlantic Ocean in the east to the Pacific Ocean in the west. It also includes Alaska in the north, and Mexico in the south. The United Stated is often called the US, the USA, or America.
The USA can be divided into three main regions: the Appalachians in the east, the plain in the central part, the Cordilleras in the west. Many rivers are flowing through the country. The northeastern part of the USA comprises the region of the five Great Lakes connected by natural channels.
The USA is rich in natural resources. It has vast areas of fertile soil, an abundant water supply, and large areas of forests.
About 94 per cent of the population were born in the United States. The US has never had an official language, but English has always been the main language spoken in the country. Spanish is the second most common language in the USA.
The US consists of 50 states and the District of Columbia. The District of Columbia is a piece of land set aside by the federal government for the nation’s capital, Washington, D.C. The United States has a federal system of government with the President at the head.
The national symbols of the USA include the American flag and the Great seal. There are 50 stars on the American flag symbolizing 50 states of the USA, and 13 stripes representing 13 original states. On the one side of the Great Seal, there is an eagle holding an olive branch and arrows, which are symbolizing a desire for peace and the ability to wage a war. On the reverse side, there is the EYE of Providence, representing God, and a pyramid dated 1776.
Тhe United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland (the UK) occupies a territory of the British Isles with the total area of 244,100 sq.km. It is separated from the continent by the English Channel and the Strait of Dover. Surrounding the British Isles by the water has been an important protection against the invaders throughout the English history. And certainly, it influences the climate of the country.
The UK consists of four parts and every part has its national emblem: England - the red rose, Scotland - the thistle, Wales - the daffodil and the leek, Northern Ireland - the shamrock. The capitals of the four parts are London, Edinburgh, Cardiff, and Belfast respectively.
The island of Great Britain can be divided into two main regions: Lowland Britain and Highland Britain. All parts of Great Britain are worth seeing. The population of the UK is over 57 million people. The official language is English.
The flag of the UK is made up of three crosses of the patron saints: the upright red against a white background - St George of England, the white diagonal against a blue background - St Andrew of Scotland, the red diagonal against a white background - St Patrick of Northern Ireland. The English people have the habit of naming their national flag ‘the Union Jack’.
The UK is a constitutional monarchy. The Head of the state is the Queen who reigns with the support of Parliament.
For a long time the UK has succeeded in remaining one of the important commercial centers of the world. Nowadays the UK doesn’t depend upon economics and industrial manufacturing of other countries.
1. Seitsuca (suitcase)
2. Viontitain (invitation)
4. Endekwe (weekend)
5. Geranar (arrange)
7. Dahoysli (holidays)
8. Maneci (cinema)
9. Lingveltra (travelling)
10. Tutisiaon (situation)
11. Nerrpta (partner)
12. Neyurjo (journey)
1) Siberia (RUS)
2) Pentagon (USA)
3) Lock Ness (UK)
4) Manchester (UK)
5) Princess Diana (UK)
6) George Washington (USA)
7) Hot dog (USA)
8) Urals (RUS)
9) Birch tree (RUS)
10) Putin (RUS)
11) Rugby (UK)
12) Pepsi (USA)
13) Alaska (USA)
14) Robert Burns (UK)
15) Nested doll (RUS)
16) Liverpool (UK)
17) The Congress (USA)
18) Stars and Stripes (USA)
19) Balalaika (RUS)
20) Prince Charles (UK)
During far times for cape Borovitskii there was a first settlement of the future Moscow. In 1147 prince Jury Dolgoruky gave here the feast. This annalistic mention has become history as a year of the basis of Moscow. Already at that time the settlement was surrounded with a shaft and wooden walls. In this place prince in 1156 equips the fortress which has become by the well-known Moscow Kremlin. The fire in 1354 destroys the Kremlin. Dmitry Ivanovich decides to surround the Kremlin with stone strengthening.
The modern kind of the Kremlin has developed in 1485-1495 under Ivan's III initiative. On construction of walls and towers of a fortress the Italian masters in the field of construction of defensive works have been involved. Here secret passes to the river and a well providing defenders of a fortress by water have been provided.
Statue of Liberty
The statue, has been constructed by Frenchman Frederick Augusto Bartholdi. It is a symbol of friendship, freedom and the peace.
The statue of Freedom rising in the sky on 46 meters is the most popular monument in the world. In 1924 it has been declared by a national monument. The statue of Freedom is on island of Freedom where it has been solemnly opened on October, 28th, 1886 by American president Grover Cleveland. The constructed statue has been presented by the Frenchmen to Americans in honor of the 100 anniversary of independence of America and as a token of friendship between these countries.
The London eye
In London there is a sight from which height it is possible to see at once all sights of capital of Foggy Albion. This big wheel which has the surprising name « the London eye ». This attraction is located on southern coast of Thames, is constructed to the beginning of 21-st century. Cabins of big wheels remind transparent capsules. Owing to such closed design everyone cabin completely is safe. To fall out of a capsule of the London eye it is impossible. Turns from tourists to this attraction never come to an end. The highest point of the London wheel makes 135 meters above the ground.
Over the river, over the bay
Ferry-boats travel every day.
Watching the seagulls, laughing with friends,
I`m always sorry when the trip ends.
Over the mountains, over the plains,
Over the rivers here comes trains.
Carrying passengers, carrying mail,
Over the country here come trains.
Matreshka - Nested doll
Russia cannot be presented without a nested doll. The first nested doll - полненькая the full-faced cheerful girl in Russian national dress - has appeared not during ancient times as consider the some people. A prototype of the Nested doll was a figure of Buddhist wise man Fuckuruma which in the end of 19 centuries have brought from island Honshu to Russia. Having inspired by this remarkable toy, turner Vasily Zvezdochkin has created Russian nested doll. Then artist Sergey Malyutin began to paint nested dolls under boys and girls. In this toy there were 8 figures. Last toy was in the form of the baby.
It is known, that in any country there is no such abundance of birches, as in Russia. The white-trunked gentle birch for a long time personifies Russian nature, Russia. The birch is photophilous, successfully grows in various climatic conditions. It is widely used in many branches of a national economy. A birch a favorite tree of all Russian people.
The white House
Between the White house and administration of the USA it is possible to put an equal-sign. However this building has begun the history a little after declaration of independence of the American state. Georges Washington, being the first president of the United States, yet had no official residence. Construction of the White house has been completed in 1800 when the president was John Adams. The residence has received the known name not at once. It named and « the House of presidents », and « the Presidential palace », and « the Presidential lock ». In 1814 it has been burnt by Englishmen. It was necessary to restore a construction, following the original. However, this time walls instead of sand color have been painted white. Then the house began to name "White".
Mountain Rushmore - a monument enormous by the sizes, a work of art and a miracle of an engineering idea simultaneously. Huge busts of presidents Georges Washington, Thomas Jefferson, Theodor Roosevelt, Abraham Lincoln personify not only the first 150 years of history of the USA, but also remind that creation of a monument of such scale demanded a nonproduction and building know-how. The author of a monument used various mechanical tools and technics of explosive works for achievement of the purpose. Each person reaches height over 18 meters, thus all of them are cut with the smallest details. Half a century after end, Mountain Rushmore remains to one of the most known symbols of America. A national memorial annually visit about three millions person.
In fact, Big Ben is the largest of the six bells of Westminster Palace in London. But it has long been associated with the name of the Clock Tower, which in September 2012 was officially called «Elizabeth Tower» - to mark the 60th anniversary of the reign of Queen Elizabeth II.The Tower was built in 1858. The project architect was Augustus Pugin. The height of the Tower and spire is 96,3 m.The Clock Tower is the largest four-sided clock mechanism in the world, and in addition, with the most accurate clocks.
In the base of each of the four clock dials there is a Latin inscription «Domine Salvam fac Reginam nostrum Victoriam primam»(«God save our Queen Victoria I»). Around the perimeter of the tower, on the left and on the right of the clock, there is another phrase in Latin - «Laus Deo» («Glory to God» or «Praise the Lord»).
St. Paul's cathedral
St. Paul's cathedral which exists since those times when there was no London, and was the city of Londinium - the main city of the Roman Britain.
It is considered, that priest Mellitus has based a cathedral in 604 year, and Apostle Paul has been chosen by the defender for this city. St. Paul's cathedral and territory near it was a place where passed national assemblies, did public applications and read sermons. St. Paul's cathedral has been some times burnt and restored.
Слова на доске: lost-and-found department, carriage, customs, sea, booking office, cable car, porter, left luggage office, transport
1. General name of trains, planes, cars is ____________.
2. You make a voyage if you travel by _____________.
3. A person in a hotel, station or airport who carries your luggage is a __________.
4. Lost things can be found in the _____________.
5. If a person goes abroad, he has to go through the ____________.
6. The word that has nothing to do with trains is _____________.
7. ____________ is a word used mostly in British English.
8. At the railway station you can leave your luggage at the __________.
9. People usually get travel tickets at the ______________.