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Опорный дидактический материал для развития навыков устной и письменной речи студентов

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Данное пособие разработано для студентов, обучающихся по специальности "Фармация".

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«Опорный дидактический материал для развития навыков устной и письменной речи студентов»

Қазақстан Республикасы Білім және ғылым министрлігі

Министерство образования и науки Республики Казахстан


Жеке меншік мекемесі «Теміртау медициналық колледжі»

Частное учреждение «Темиртауский медицинский колледж»








Опорный дидактический материал для развития навыков устной и письменной речи студентов

(Часть 1)




Дисциплина «Профессиональный иностранный язык»

Специальность: 0306000 «Фармация»

1 курс, 2 семестр










Преподаватель: Герасимчик Елена Олеговна















г. Темиртау 2018 г.

Содержание


Аннотация ……………………………………………………………

4

  1. Our college ……………………………………………………………

6

  1. Anatomy of the human body …………………………………………

8

  1. The skeleton ………………………………………………………….

10

  1. The father of medicine ………………………………………………

12

  1. The Hippocratic Oath ………………………………………………..

13

  1. Medicine in the Middle Ages ………………………………………..

14

  1. The developments of the twentieth century …………………………

16

  1. D.I. Mendeleyev ……………………………………………………..

17

  1. Mendeleyev’s periodic law …………………………………………

20

Список используемой литературы …………………………………

22

Аннотация


Целью данного учебного пособия является изучение английского языка через чтение, понимание и перевод текстов и литературы средней сложности с помощью словаря, а также развитие навыков устной речи на основе языкового материала, предусмотренного программой, чтение и понимание без словаря несложного специального текста на основе уже знакомого лексического и грамматического материала. Навыки восприятия письменной речи (навыки понимания прочитанного) крайне важны потому, что в повседневной жизни мы очень часто имеем дело с письменными образцами – это чтение книг, периодических изданий, просмотр кинофильмов, работа в Интернете и т.д. Для того чтобы текст стал реальной и продуктивной основой обучения другим видам речевой деятельности (письмо, говорение, аудирование), важно научить студентов правильно работать с предлагаемым материалом. В связи с этим в данном пособии собраны задания всех трех этапов работы с текстом: предтекстовый, текстовый и послетекстовый.

Пособие содержит тексты на фармацевтическую, медицинскую тематику, упражнения.

Практическая задача - формирование умений и навыков чтения и понимания содержания английских текстов, расширение общего и тематического словарного запаса, отработка произношения английских слов и выражений, развитие разговорных навыков.


Образовательная и воспитательная задачи выполняются в процессе решения практической задачи. Для этого содержание данного пособия ориентируется на развитие межкультурной грамотности студентов в рамках изучения профессионального английского языка.


По окончании изучения данного пособия студент должен знать:

  • языковой материал изучаемого языка (лексика, грамматика, структурные и языковые модели) в профессиональном контексте;

  • общеупотребительную и профессиональную лексику лексических единиц;

  • интернациональную лексику;

  • терминологическую лексику


По окончании изучения данного пособия студент должен уметь использовать английский язык в профессиональной деятельности:

  • воспринимать содержание текстов заданного уровня сложности профессионально-ориентированного характера;

  • работать со справочной литературой и другими источниками информации;

  • представлять англоязычную информацию профессионального характера в виде перевода, пересказа, краткого изложения, плана;

  • использовать Интернет-ресурсы для извлечения иноязычной информации в учебных и научных целях.


Студент должен обладать следующими базовыми компетенциями:


БК -1.Обучение

БК -1.1. Саморазвитие: владеет навыками долговременного планирования обучения, профессионального роста;

БК -1.3. Компьютерные технологии: использует информационные компьютерные технологии в работе и саморазвитии;

БК -2. Этика.

БК -2.1. Общественная жизнь: активно участвует в общественной жизни;

БК-3 Коммуникация и работа в команде

БК 3.2 Работа в команде: демонстрирует ответственность, работая в разных командах.


  1. Our college


Exercise 1. Read and remember the following words and word combinations:


Educational establishment

  • Образовательное учреждение

Graduates

  • Выпускники

Highly trained specialist

  • Высоко квалифицированный специалист

Department

  • Отделение

Nursing affair

  • Сестринское дело

Curative affair

  • Лечебное дело

Obstetrician affair

  • Акушерское дело

Orthopedic stomatology

  • Ортопедическая стоматология

Nurse

  • Медицинская сестра

Uninterrupted

  • Непрерывный

To provide

  • Обеспечивать

Measure

  • Мера

Independently

  • Независимо

Emergency ambulance

  • Машина скорой помощи

Preventive

  • Профилактический

Pregnant

  • Беременная

Under the guidance

  • Под руководством

Spreading

  • Распространение

Disease

  • Заболевание

Health

  • Здоровье

Artificial

  • Искусственный

Medicines

  • Лекарства

Preparation

  • Приготовление

Chemist’s

  • Аптека


Exercise 2. Read and translate the text.


Our College

My name is Sveta Popova. I’m 17. I’m a student of the medical college. Our college is one of the oldest educational establishments of the region with its own traditions. Its graduates are considered to be the most highly trained specialists in the region. There are 7 departments in our college. I would like to tell you about them.

“Nursing Affair” gives qualification of a nurse of general practice. A medical nurse is a chief assistant of a doctor. She provides uninterrupted medical help including preventive and rehabilitation measures. Our graduates work in the polyclinics, hospitals, kindergartens, schools and houses for aged people.

If you want to become a doctor assistant you should study at the “Curative Affair” department.  A doctor assistant of general practice is a highly-trained specialist who works independently in the polyclinics, emergency ambulances and hospitals. His main task includes prescription and performance of preventive, curative and diagnostic measures. The graduates of this department are waited for at the stations of emergency medical help, in the country-side hospitals and in the military hospitals.

“Obstetrician Affair” is another interesting department. It offers qualification of an obstetrician. An obstetrician provides preventive and curative medical help to the pregnant women ant patients with gynecological diseases.

Boys and girls whose future profession is dentist study at the “Stomatology” department. A dentist is a highly-trained specialist who works independently or under the guidance of a senior doctor who provides preventive and curative medical help for the population.

“Medical-Prophylactic Affair” gives qualification of a sanitary doctor assistant who prevents appearance and spreading of infections and other kinds of the diseases. He controls the influence of the conditions of work and life on a person’s health and takes some measures to prevent this harmful influence of the surroundings. They work in the centers of state sanitary inspectors and laboratories of different branches.

A dental mechanic is a future specialist who studies at the “Orthopedic Stomatology” and learns to make artificial teeth and crowns, plastic and porcelain teeth. On graduating from the college they usually work in the dental mechanical laboratories.

As for me I am a student of the “Pharmacy” department. My future profession is pharmaceutist. I’ll provide the population with different medicines. My work will demand the knowledge of preventive rules, the rules of herb’s preparation and so on. The graduates of our department will be able to work in the chemist’s, pharmacological enterprises, laboratories. I like to study at our college very much.


Exercise 3. Give the English equivalents to the next words:

Студентка медицинского колледжа; фельдшер; главная задача; станция скорой помощи; акушерка; зубной врач; медицинская помощь населению; условия работы; вредное влияние; будущая профессия; знание.


Exercise 4. Answer the following questions:

  1. Where does Sveta Popova study?

  2. How many departments are there in the college?

  3. What kind of qualification does the “Nursing affair” department give?

  4. Who can work at the station of emergency medical help?

  5. What does an obstetrician provide to the pregnant women and the patients with gynecological diseases?

  6. Where do the sanitary doctor assistants work?

  7. What is Sveta’s future profession?

Exercise 5. Tell about your college.

  1. Anatomy of the human body


Exercise 1. Read and remember the following words.


Parts of the body:

Body

  • [ ˈbɒdi ]

  • Тело

Head

  • [ hed ]

  • Голова

Hair

  • [ heə(r) ]

  • Волосы

Face

  • [ feɪs ]

  • Лицо

Cheek

  • [ tʃiːk ]

  • Щека

Eye

  • [ aɪ ]

  • Глаз

Ear

  • [ ɪə(r) ]

  • Ухо

Mouth

  • [ maʊθ ]

  • Рот

Tooth (pl. teeth)

  • [ tuːθ ], [ tiːθ ]

  • Зуб (мн. ч. зубы)

Arm

  • [ ɑːm ]

  • Рука

Leg

  • [ leɡ ]

  • Нога

Hand

  • [ hænd ]

  • Кисть

Finger

  • [ ˈfɪŋɡə(r) ]

  • Палец (руки)

Toe

  • [ təʊ ]

  • Палец (ноги)

Foot (pl. feet)

  • [ fʊt ], [ fiːt ]

  • Стопа (мн. ч. стопы)

Forehead

  • [ ˈfɒr.ɪd ]

  • Лоб

Nose

  • [ nəʊz ]

  • Нос

Shoulder

  • [ ˈʃəʊldə(r) ]

  • Плечо

Chest

  • [ tʃest ]

  • Грудь

Back

  • [ bæk ]

  • Спина


Exercise 2. Describe the appearance of your friend using next adjectives:

Slender – Stout

Round – Oval

Blue, grey, black, green, brown

Straight – Upturned

Dark – Fair

Rosy – Pale

Short – Long

Broad – Narrow


Exercise 3. Read and remember the following words.


The inner organs of the human body:

Heart

  • [ hɑːt ]

  • Сердце

Lung

  • [ lʌŋ ]

  • Легкое

Tongue

  • [ tʌŋ ]

  • Язык

Pharynx

  • [ ˈfær.ɪŋks ]

  • Глотка

Esophagus

  • [ ɪˈsɒf.ə.ɡəs ]

  • Пищевод

Stomach

  • [ ˈstʌmək ]

  • Желудок

Liver

  • [ ˈlɪv.ər ]

  • Печень

Gall bladder

  • [ ɡɔːl ] [ ˈblæd.ər ]

  • Желчный пузырь

Pancreas

  • [ ˈpæŋ.kri.əs ]

  • Поджелудочная железа

Duodenum

  • [ ˌdjuː.əˈdiː.nəm ]

  • Двенадцатиперстная кишка

Small intestine

  • [ smɔːl ] [ ɪnˈtes.tɪn ]

  • Тонкая кишка

Appendix

  • [ əˈpen.dɪks ]

  • Аппендикс

Rectum

  • [ ˈrek.təm ]

  • Прямая кишка

Kidney

  • [ ˈkɪd.ni ]

  • Почка

Bladder

  • [ ˈblæd.ər ]

  • Мочевой пузырь

Uterus

  • [ ˈjuː.tər.əs ]

  • Матка


Exercise 4. Listen to the record. What is the man talking about? What have you understood?


Exercise 5. Now read the text and translate it.


We study Anatomy

At the practical Anatomy class we study the human body. The principle parts of the human body are the head, the trunk and the limbs (extremities). We speak of the upper extremities (arms) and the lower extremities (legs).

The head consists of two parts: the skull which contains the brain, and the face which consists of the forehead, the eyes, the nose, the mouth, the cheeks, the ears and the chin. In the mouth there are gums with teeth, the tongue and the palate. The head is connected with the trunk by the neck. The upper part of the trunk is the chest and the lower one is the abdomen.

The principle organs in the chest are the lungs, the heart and the gullet (esophagus). We breathe with the lungs. The heart contracts and makes 60-80 beats per minute. The principle organs in the abdominal cavity are the stomach, the liver, the spleen, the intestine, the kidneys, the gall-bladder and the bladder.

The framework of the bones is called the skeleton; it supports the soft parts and protects the organs form injury. The bones are covered with muscles. The upper extremity is connected with the chest by the shoulder. Each arm consists of the upper arm, forearm, elbow, wrist and hand. We have four fingers and a thumb on each hand. The lower extremity (the leg) consists of the hip (the thigh), knee, calf, ankle and foot.

The body is covered by the skin.



  1. The skeleton


Exercise 1. Read and give the transcription to the following words. Work with a dictionary.


Cranial

  • Черепной

Facial

  • Лицевой

Spinal column

  • Позвоночный столб

Cervical

  • Шейный

Thoracic

  • Грудной

Lumbar

  • Поясничный

Sacral

  • Крестцовый

Vertebra (pl. vertebrae)

  • Позвонок (мн. ч. позвонки)

Coccyx

  • Копчик

Arch

  • Дуга

Thorax

  • Грудная клетка

Basic

  • Основной

Cartilage

  • Хрящ

Pelvis

  • Таз

Ligament

  • Связка

Substance

  • Вещество


Exercise 2. Read and learn the following words and word combinations by heart:

Bone

  • [ bəʊn ]

  • Кость

Skull

  • [ skʌl ]

  • Череп

Consist of

  • [ kənˈsɪst ]

  • Состоять из

Part

  • [ pɑːt ]

  • Часть

Trunk

  • [ trʌŋk ]

  • Туловище

Spine

  • [ spaɪn ]

  • Позвоночник

Chest

  • [ tʃest ]

  • Грудь

Rib

  • [ rɪb ]

  • Ребро

Breastbone

  • [ ˈbrest.bəʊn ]

  • Грудина

Side

  • [ saɪd ]

  • Сторона, бок

Compose

  • [ kəmˈpəʊz ]

  • Составлять

Connect

  • [ kəˈnekt ]

  • Соединять

Free

  • [ friː ]

  • Свободный

Neck

  • [ nek ]

  • Шея

Lower extremity

  • [ ˈləʊ.ər ] [ ɪkˈstremɪti ]

  • Нижняя конечность

Upper extremity

  • [ ˈʌpə(r) ] [ ɪkˈstremɪti ]

  • Верхняя конечность

Thigh

  • [ θaɪ ]

  • Бедро

Forearm

  • [ ˈfɔː.rɑːm ]

  • Предплечье

Joint

  • [ dʒɔɪnt ]

  • Сустав


Exercise 3. Read and translate the following word combinations:

  1. arch: arches, the arch of the vertebra, the arch of the aorta;

  2. breastbone: the breastbone is a long bone, the breastbone is in the middle of the chest;

  3. extremity: the lower extremity, the am is an upper extremity, the leg is a lower extremity;

  4. shoulder: the right shoulder, the left shoulder;

  5. joint: to be connected together by the joints, some bones of the skeleton are connected together by the joints, joint experiments


Exercise 4. Read and translate the text.


The skeleton

The skeleton is composed of bones. In the adult the skeleton has over 200 bones.

The bones of the skull consist of cranial and facial parts1. There are 26 bones in the skull.

The bones of the trunk are the spinal column or the spine and the chest (ribs and the breastbone). The spine consists of the cervical, thoracic, lumbar and sacral vertebrae and the coccyx.

The vertebra is a small bone, which is formed by the body and the arches2. All the vertebrae compose the spinal column or the spine. There are 32 or 34 vertebrae in the spine of the adult. In the spinal column there are seven cervical vertebrae, twelve thoracic vertebrae, five lumbar, five sacral vertebrae and from one to five vertebrae which form the coccyx. The cervical part of the spine is formed by seven cervical vertebrae. Twelve thoracic vertebrae have large bodies. The lumbar vertebrae are the largest vertebrae in the spinal column. They have oval bodies.

The chest (thorax) is composed of 12 thoracic vertebrae, the breastbone and 12 pairs (nap) of ribs. The breastbone is a long bone in the middle of the chest. It is composed of three main parts. The basic part of the chest is formed by the ribs. On each side of the chest seven ribs are connected with the breastbone by cartilages. The cartilages of three other ribs are connected with each other and with the seventh rib. But the cartilages of these ribs are not connected with the breastbone. The eleventh and the twelfth ribs are not connected with the breastbone either (также). They are not connected with other ribs, they are free. Each rib is composed of a head, neck and body.

The lower extremity consists of the thigh, leg and foot. It is connected with the trunk by the pelvis. The upper extremity is formed by the arm, forearm and hand. It is connected with the trunk by the shoulder girdle (пояс).

The bones of the skeleton are connected together by the joints or by the cartilages and ligaments. The bones consist of organic and inorganic substance.

  1. The father of medicine


Exercise 1. Answer the questions:

  1. Who is Hippocrates?

  2. What do you know about him?


Exercise 2. Read and translate the text.


Hippocrates — "The father of medicine"

Hippocrates was born in 460 В. С on the island (остров) of Cos. He was the son of a doctor. Hippocrates studied medicine and then he went from town to town where he practiced the art of medicine. It is known that he drove out (изгнал) the plague [pleig] (чума) from Athens by lighting fires in the street of the city.

Hippocrates was known as an excellent doctor and a teacher of medicine. He established medical schools in Athenes and in other towns. He wrote several books and many case histories (история болезни). Hippocrates taught his pupils to examine the patient very attentively and to give him quick help. He created medicine on the basis of experience. He taught that every disease was a natural process and it had natural causes. Hippocrates treated diseases by exercise, massage, salt water baths, diet and suitable (под-ходящий) medicine. He observed diseases such a pneumonia, tuberculosis and malaria and added to the medical language such words as chronic, crisis, relapse (ре­цидив) and convalescence (выздоровлении).

Hippocrates made medicine an art, a science and a profession.

Hippocrates is the most famous of all the Greek doctors. He is often called "the father of Medicine" and some of his ideas are still important.

Doctors in many countries take the Hippocratic Oath (клятва). It is a collection of promises (обещание), written by Hippocrates, which forms the basis of the medical code of honour (кодекс чести). The Oath of Hippocrates contains many of his basic thoughts and principles.


Exercise 3. Answer the following questions:

  1. When was Hippocrates born?

  2. How did he practice the art of medicine?

  3. How did Hippocrates drive out the plague from Ath­ens?

  4. Was Hippocrates an excellent doctor and a teacher of medicine?

  5. How did Hippocrates teach his pupils to examine the patient?

  6. How did Hippocrates treat diseases?

  7. What are the words, added to the medical language, by Hippocrates?

  8. Who is the most famous of all the Greek doctors?

  9. Why is Hippocrates called "the Father of Medicine".

  10. How is a collection of promises, written by Hippo­crates, called?


Exercise 4. Make a summary of the text and retell it.

  1. The Hippocratic Oath

Exercise 1.

  1. Listen to the record. What have you understood?

  2. Now read the text and listen it again.


Exercise 2. Translate the text.


The Hippocratic Oath (The Oath of the Doctor)

Receiving the lofty title of the doctor and beginning the medical practice, I solemnly take the oath:

To devote all my knowledge and strength to the protection and improvement of the people’s health, to the treatment and prevention of diseases, to work honestly wherever the interests of the society require;

To be always ready to give medical assistance, to deal with the patient attentively and carefully, to keep the medical secrecy;

To perfect the medical knowledge and professional skill, to promote the development of medical science and practice by honest labour;

To consult the colleagues wherever the interests of the patient may require and never to refuse an advice or assistance to anybody;

To preserve and to develop the noble traditions of medicine, to follow the principles of the ethics in all the activity, always to remember about the lofty calling of the doctor, about the responsibility to the people.

I swear to be true to this oath during the whole life.


Exercise 3. Give the English equivalents to the following word combinations:

высокое звание врача; торжественно клянусь; трудиться добросовестно; оказать медицинскую помощь; совершенствовать медицинские познания и профессиональное мастерство; никогда не отказывать в совете; быть верным этой присяге.


Exercise 4. Learn the Oath by heart.



  1. Medicine in the Middle Ages


Exercise 1. Read and remember the following words:


To protect

  • [ prəˈtekt ]

  • Защищать

Diphtheria

  • [ dɪfˈθɪə.ri.ə ]

  • Дифтерия

Typhoid

  • [ ˈtaɪfɔɪd ]

  • Брюшной тиф

Influ­enza

  • [ ˌɪn.fluˈen.zə ]

  • Грипп

To spread

  • [ spred ]

  • Распространять

Means

  • [ miːnz ]

  • Средства

Advance

  • [ ədˈvɑːns ]

  • Прогресс, достижение

To advise

  • [ ədˈvaɪz ]

  • Советовать

Development

  • [ dɪˈveləpmənt ]

  • Развитие

Century

  • [ ˈsentʃəri ]

  • Век

To be founded

  • [ wɜːr ] [ faʊnd ]

  • Быть основанным

Foundation

  • [ faʊnˈdeɪʃn ]

  • Основание

Science

  • [ ˈsaɪəns ]

  • Наука

To be taught

  • [ wɜːr ] [ tɔːt ]

  • Изучаться


Exercise 2. Read and translate the text.


Medicine in the Middle Ages

Man tried to protect health during the Middle Ages. Certain important health methods were used during this period. Epi­demics of diphtheria, typhoid, fever, leprosy (проказа), influ­enza, bubonic plague and other diseases took millions of lives.

Leprosy was spread for hundreds of years. This disease was controlled not by medical means. The patients lived in spe­cial colonies away from other people. This was a very impor­tant advance in public health during this period.

During the Middle Ages plague killed many millions of people in Europe.

In 1348 the "Black Death" struck (поразила) Britain: nobody knew how to fight with the disease. The doctors ad­vised people to run away from the affected (пораженные) areas. Everybody agreed that plague was god's punishment (божья кара) for the sins (грех) of men.


Exercise 3. Answer the following question.


  1. What diseases took millions of lives in the middle ages?

  2. How was leprosy controlled in the middle ages?

  3. What disease struck Britain in 1348?

  4. How was plague called?

  5. Was plague god's punishment for the sins of man?


Exercise 4. Read and translate the text.


Developments of the Middle Ages

A very important development during the Middle Ages was the hospital. Hospitals appeared in Ceylon early in the fifth century В. С and in India in 260 В. С Hospitals were founded during the Middle Ages in Italy, France, England, Spain, and other European countries.

The number of hospital beds was not always an indication of hospital size, usually great beds were used and four-six patients were put on one bed.

Hospitals were founded to treat the sick people. Another development during the Middle Ages was the foundation of Universities. Many of the great European Universities were founded during the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries. Bi­ological sciences were taught in the universities. Students also studied the human body and some diseases.


Exercise 5. Answer the following questions:


  1. What were important developments during the Mid­dle Ages?

  2. When and where did the first hospitals appear?

  3. Was the number of hospital beds an indication of hos­pital size?

  4. What were hospitals founded for?

  5. What sciences did students study in the universities in the Middle Ages?


Exercise 6. Make a summary of two texts and tell about the medicine in the Middle Ages.


  1. The developments of the twentieth century

Exercise 1.

  1. Listen to the record. What have you understood?

  2. Now read the text and listen it again.


Exercise 2. Translate the text.


The developments of the twentieth century

During the first seventy years of the twentieth century many discoveries were made in the treatment and prevention of disease. In 1901 Karl Land Steiner discovered the blood groups.

Some diseases are not caused by germs or infections but by the lack (недостаток, нехватка) of certain substances in our food. The discovery of vitamins in 1912 was very impor­tant to provide (обеспечить) people with a properly balanced diet. In 1922 Sir Frederick Banting found that insulin was very effective against diabetes. Penicillin was discovered in 1928 by Dr. Alexander Fleming who became the founder of the modern science of antibiosis. Penicillin was used in hos­pitals to reduce infections in wounds during the Second World War. Streptomycin and a series of anti-infection drugs were discovered after penicillin. All these drugs are known as antibiotics.

A drug known as Sulphanilamide was discovered in 1935. It became the first of the "miracle" drags (чудодейственное лекарства) which gave immediate and amazing results in the treatment of many infectious diseases including pneumonia.

During the two world wars, great advances were made in the field of plastic surgery, in which skin, bone or muscle was taken from one part of the body and then was transplanted to a badly injured area in another part.

Great progress was made in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases, cancer, bacterial and viral infec­tions, kidney disorders and other main causes of death and disability (потеря трудоспособности). The individual of today will live longer and more healthfully than ever before.



Exercise 3. Give the English equivalents to the following word combinations:


лечение и профилактика заболевания, группа крови, быть причиной, недостаток определенных веществ, обеспечить сбалансированной диетой, быть эффектив­ным, уменьшить инфекционное поражение ран, плас­тическая хирургия, трансплантировать кожу, кость, мышцу, сердечно-сосудистые


Exercise 4. Make a summary of the text and retell it.


  1. D.I. Mendeleyev


Exercise 1. Read and remember the following words:


age

  • возраст, век

attention

  • внимание

to appoint

  • назначать

in addition to

  • кроме того

applied

  • прикладной

to be able

  • быть в состоянии, мочь

to bring

  • приносить

to give a course of lectures

  • читать курс лекций

complete

  • полный; заканчивать

to discuss

  • обсуждать

to describe

  • описывать

to elect

  • избирать

a layer

  • слой

to put forward

  • выдвинуть

to spend

  • тратить, проводить

to search for

  • искать, поиск

to teach

  • учить, обучать

to teach classes

  • проводить занятия

to think

  • думать

upper

  • верхний

both… and…

  • как… так…

so that all would go well

  • с тем, чтобы все было


Exercise 2. Read and translate the text.


D.I. Mendeleyev

D.I. Mendeleyev, the great Russian scientist, was born in Tobolsk in 1834. After finishing school, at the age of 16, he went to St. Petersburg and entered the Pedagogical Institute. He graduated from the Institute in 1855. In 1866 Mendeleyev was appointed professor at the University where he gave the course of lectures on chemistry. His lectures where always listened to with great interest and attention. Even in the class of two hundred students everyone was able to follow his discussions from the beginning to the end.

Interesting experiments were made in his classes. Both he and his students-assistants worked long hours in preparing the demonstrations so that all would go well.

At the University Mendeleyev taught classes in the morning. In the afternoon he made experiments in his two-room

laboratory. At night Mendeleyev spent much of his time working with the cards on which he put down information about each of the chemical elements.

Mendeleyev made thousands of experiments with his own hands. He made thousands of calculations, wrote a lot of letters, studied many reports. Everything in the world that was known about the chemical elements Mendeleyev knew. For months, for years he searched for missing data. All those data were being brought together and grouped in a special way. In 1869 the description of more than 60 elements was completed, and Mendeleyev published his Periodic Table.

The Periodic Table is spoken of as the beginning of a new era in chemical thought.

In addition to this work Mendeleyev paid much attention to many subjects of an applied chemical nature. He was the first to put forward the idea of studying the upper layers of the atmosphere.

Mendeleyev was elected member of many academies abroad.

He died in February 1907 at the age of 75.


Exercise 3. Match the words from the left column to the words from the right one.


  1. scientist

  1. возраст

  1. complete

  1. проводить

  1. thought

  1. ученый

  1. age

  1. следить, следовать

  1. description

  1. внимание

  1. follow

  1. заканчивать

  1. spend

  1. назначать

  1. appoint

  1. мысль

  1. to put forward

  1. описание

  1. attention

  1. выдвигать


Exercise 4. Find the words with opposite meaning and translate them into Russian.


to be born, graduate, new, die, beginning, complete, begin, end, to enter, old.


Exercise 5. Find the words with the same meaning and translate them into Russian.


beginning, to bring together, to write down, start, to help, to put down, to gather, to assist, much, many.


Exercise 6. Answer the following questions:


  1. What was D. I. Mendeleyev?

  2. Where was he born?

  3. How old was Mendeleyev when he entered the Pedagogical Institute?

  4. When did Mendeleyev graduate from the Institute?

  5. When was Mendeleyev appointed professor at the University?

  6. What did Mendeleyev do at the University?

  7. What did Mendeleyev put down on the cards?

  8. How many chemical elements did Mendeleyev describe?

  9. When was the Periodic Table published?


  1. Mendeleyev’s periodic law

Exercise 1. Listen, read and remember the following words:


to discover

  • делать открытия, открывать

to arrange

  • располагать, классифицировать

separate

  • отдельный

a column

  • столбик

a series

  • ряд

weight

  • вес, масса

to increase

  • возрастать, увеличивать

across

  • через

dependence

  • зависимость

a property

  • свойство

to construct

  • создавать

space

  • место

vacant

  • пустой, свободный

vacancy

  • пустота

to consider

  • полагать, считать

probably

  • вероятно

an establishment

  • заведение

to serve

  • служить, быть полезным

a research

  • исследовательская работа


Exercise 2. Read and translate the text.


Mendeleyev’s periodic law

The Periodic Law was discovered by D. I. Mendeleyev in 1869. Mendeleyev arranged the elements in tabular form in such a way as to bring their correspondences quite clearly.

The elements are divided into eight groups, each of which is entered in a separate column. They are also divided into 10 «series» each of which is entered upon one horizontal line. The atomic weights increase across the table from left to the right. D. I. Mendeleyev was the first to discover the law of dependence of the properties of the elements upon their atomic weights. The elements in any one column are similar to one another in many ways, the resemblance being very striking.

Mendeleyev found it impossible to construct his table without leaving many of the spaces in it vacant. He considered these vacancies to correspond the elements which were not then known, but which would probably be discovered in the future.

Today the Periodic Law is studied by millions of secondary schoolchildren and by the students at higher establishments of natural sciences and engineering. It is studied by philosophers, historians and teachers.

The Periodic Law serves as a platform for thousands of researchers.


Exercise 3. Match the words from the left column to the words from the right one.


  1. пустота

  1. space

  1. создавать

  1. dependence

  1. место

  1. weight

  1. вес, масса

  1. establishment

  1. отдельный

  1. to arrange

  1. зависимость

  1. vacancy

  1. заведение

  1. to discover

  1. возрастать, увеличивать

  1. separate

  1. располагать

  1. to increase

  1. делать открытия

  1. to construct


Exercise 4. Translate the following word combinations into English:


разделен на девять групп, в форме таблицы, периодический закон, атомный вес повышается, составлять таблицу, слева направо, в будущем, открывать закон, зависимость свойств элементов от их атомных масс.


Exercise 5. Answer the following questions:


  1. Who was the first to discover the law of dependence of the

properties of the elements upon their atomic weights?

  1. What is the main idea of the Periodic System?

  2. How many groups are there in the periodic table?

  3. How does the atomic weight increase in the table?

  4. Why did Mendeleyev leave many spaces in the table vacant?

  5. Why is the Periodic Table so important for science?


Exercise 6. Make a summary of the text and retell it.




Список используемой литературы


Основная:

  1. Козырева Л.Г. Английский язык для медицинских колледжей и училищ: учебное пособие – Изд. 7-е. – Ростов н/Д: Феникс, 2007. – 315 с.

  2. Маслова А.М., Вайнштейн З.И., Плебейская Л.С. Английский язык для медицинских вузов: учебник. – 5-е изд., испр. – М.: ГЭОТАР - Медиа, 2013. – 336 с.

  3. Пастернак М.С. Пособие по английскому языку для фармацевтических училищ. – М.: АНМИ, 2004. – 282 с.


Дополнительная:

  1. Марковина И.Ю., Громова Г.Е., Полоса С.В. Английский язык. Вводный курс. Учебник для медицинских училищ и колледжей. – М.: ГЭОТАР-Медиа, 2016. – 160 с.


Интернет ресурсы:

  1. http://dictionary.cambridge.org

  2. http://fromtexttospeech.com

  3. http://engblog.ru



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Предмет: Английский язык

Категория: Прочее

Целевая аудитория: Прочее

Автор: Герасимчик Елена Олеговна

Дата: 17.06.2019

Номер свидетельства: 514973

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