В2. Прочитайте тексты.
1. It’s strange that the differences in Britain itself are greater than those between Britain and other English-speaking countries. For a Londoner, it’s easier to understand an American than a Cockney. Cockney has a pronunciation, accent and vocabulary unlike any other dialect. Cockney speech is famous for its rhyming slang. A word is replaced by a phrase or a person’s name which rhymes with it.
2. Other languages absorb English words too, often giving them new forms and meanings. So many Japanese, French, Spanish and Germans mix English words with their mother tongues that the resulting hybrids are called Japlish, Franglais, Spanglish and Denglish, In Japanese, for example, there is a verb Makudonaru, to eat at McDonald’s.
3. Have you ever wondered why the English language has different words for animals and meat? When William the Conqueror invaded England in 1066, French became the official language of the court. The English would look after the animals and cook the meat, still calling the animals pig, sheep and cow. The Normans, when they saw the cooked meat arrive at their table, would use French words – pork, mutton and beef.
4. English is mixing with other languages around the world. It’s probably the biggest borrower. Words newly coined or in vogue in one language are very often added to English as well. There are words from 120 languages in its vocabulary, including Arabic, French, German, Greek, Italian, Russian, Spanish and Turkish. 70 per cent of the English vocabulary are loan words and only 30 per cent of the words are native.
5. Have you ever wondered how many people speak English? It’s around 400 million people. Geographically, English is the most wide-spread language on earth, and it’s second only to Chinese in the number of people who speak it. It’s spoken in the British Isles, the USA, Australia, New Zealand and much of Canada and South Africa. English is also a second language of another 300 million people living in more than 60 countries.
6. In Shakespeare’s time only a few million people spoke English. All of them lived in what is now Great Britain. Through the centuries, as a result of various historical events, English spread throughout the world. There were only 30,000 words in Old English. Modern English has the largest vocabulary in the world – more than 600,000 words.
7. In the English language blackboards can be green or white, and blackberries are green and then red before they are ripe. There is no egg in eggplant, neither mush nor room in mushroom, neither pine nor apple in pineapple, no ham in hamburger. Why is it that a king rules a kingdom but a queen doesn’t rule a queendom? If the plural of tooth is teeth, shouldn’t the plural of booth be beeth? And in what other language can your nose run?
Установите соответствие между заголовками A – Н и текстами 1 – 7. Занесите свои ответы в таблицу. Используйте каждую букву только один раз. В задании один заголовок лишний.
А) GLOBAL LANGUAGE
B) HOW IT ALL BEGAN
C) GREAT BORROWER
D) THE LANGUAGE OF COMPUTERS
E) ENGLISH IN OTHER LANGUAGES
F) FRENCH INFLUENCE
G) CRAZY ENGLISH
H) DO YOU SPEAK COCKNEY?
B3. Прочитайте текст и заполните пропуски 1 – 6 частями предложений, обозначенными буквами A – G. Одна из частей в списке А – G лишняя.
Australia was the last great landmass to be discovered by the Europeans. The continent they eventually discovered had already been inhabited for tens of thousands of years.
Australia is an island continent 1_______________________ is the result of gradual changes wrought over millions of years.
2_______________________, Australia is one of the most stable land masses, and for about 100 million years has been free of the forces that have given rise to huge mountain ranges elsewhere.
From the east coast a narrow, fertile strip merges into the greatly eroded Great Dividing Range, 3_______________________.
The mountains are merely reminders of the mighty range, 4 _______________________. Only in the section straddling the New South Wales border with Victoria and in Tasmania, are they high enough to have winter snow.
West of the range of the country becomes increasingly flat and dry. The endless flatness is broken only by salt lakes, occasional mysterious protuberances and some mountains 5_______________________. In places the scant vegetation is sufficient to allow some grazing. However, much of the Australian outback is a barren land of harsh stone deserts and dry lakes.
The extreme north of Australia, the Top End, is a tropical area within the monsoon belt. 6_______________________, it comes in more or less one short, sharp burst. This has prevented the Top End from becoming seriously productive area.
A) that once stood here
B) that is almost continent long
C) whose property is situated to the north of Tasmania
D) whose landscape - much of bleak and inhospitable -
E) whose beauty reminds of the MacDonald Ranges
F) Although its annual rainfall looks adequate on paper
G) Although there is still seismic activity in the eastern highland area
1H, 2E, 3F, 4C, 5A, 6B, 7G
1D, 2G, 3B, 4A, 5E, 6F