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The Literature of Bukhara in XIX Century

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The Literature of Bukhara in XIX Century

Nabiyeva Dilrabo Qodirjonovna

Gi’jduvon tuman 5- makatab ingliz tili fani o’qituvchisi

   

Bukhara is one of the main cities on the Great Silk Road that have played a significant role in the origin, growth and development of literature couched in Uzbek and Persian-Tajik languages.

At the beginning of XVI century Bukhara was a capital of Turkestan and being the capital came to play a very special role in the development Uzbek literature and the Uzbek language since Shaibanids. At the same time the Tajik literature grew and developed. The literary life of Bukhara of the XVII-XVIII centuries significantly progressed on democratic foundation. In the last decade of the 20th century the modern western and eastern philosophies are keenly aware of the changes and switches in the mentality, psychophysiology and world outlook of the countries of the world.

After the Russian conquest (XIX century) in literary life new forms and genres evolved – publicistic essays, for example. Let us see some of scientists, writers and poets of Bukhara in 19th century.

Great writer, reformer, scholar and public figure Sadriddin Said-Muzhodzoda (after 1896 his penname was “Ayni”) was born on April 15, 1878, Gijduvan, Bukhara. His mother was from Shafirkan. Ayni studied at Kukeldash mosque and he belonged to the left wing of the Djadid movement. He harshly criticized the conservative and out-of-date regime of the Bukhara Emirate through vivid word painting of the Bukhara emirs and descriptions of the hard situations of the common people. The scholarly and literary legacy of Ayni is still of great importance, though it has aged. His creative works had three principal directions: fiction, history, and scientific research. Ayni is known as a historian for his works: “History of the Mangit Emirs of Bukhara and Materials on History of Revolution in Bukhara”. The author took place in the events he depicted. Ayni’s memoirs, in which he reflected on the occurrences of his life in Bukhara, are also of great value. The most significant part of his work was that of turning the historical events from the reign of emir Muzaffar into memoirs. It is the source of the history of irrigation, the financial and taxation system and the military actions of the emir’s army under the control of Salimbek himself while fighting against the troops of Bolshevik military commander Kolesov.

On April 14, 1951, he became an academic and at the same time, the first president of Academic Science of Tajik.

S. Ayni could perfectly speak in both – Tadjik and Uzbek languages. So that he created his works in both languages, added productive and significant contributions to the both nations. His main works: “Odina”(1924), “Doxunda”(1930), “Slaves”(1934), “The Creditor`s Death”(1939), “Memoires”(1949-1954). The play of “Odina” is considered the beginning of a new Tajik literature. Meanwhile “The Slaves” is the first Tajik novel, it is described the life of Central Asia from the beginning of XIX century till the thirtieth years of XX century.

In “The Creditor`s Death” is depicted the chameleon character which called Kori Ishkamba. Kori Ishkamba is compared with Gobsek, Plyushkin, Iidushka, Golovlyov and at the same time having the national Tajik features. “Memoires” demonstrates the childhood and adulthood of the author and gives the wide scenes of Bukhara society. For this book Ayni was awarded in 1950. Ivan Dzyube wrote research work about Ayni. In 1962, at the conference of Asia and Africa, S. Ayni was equaled with R. Thagor, Lu Sin, Taxa Huseyn. His works were translated in Russian, Ukrainian, Belorussian, Lithuanian, Polish, Czech, French and Urdu. He died on July 15, 1954, Stalinabad. organizing the best and the most talented in their struggle for enlightenment, further development of literature, independence, liberation of their Motherland.

Used literature:

1. Scientific and Cultural Heritage of Mankind – to the Third Millennium, Tashkent, 1997.

2. Ancient Bukhara, Tashkent, 2003.

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«The Literature of Bukhara in XIX Century»

The Literature of Bukhara in XIX Century

Nabiyeva Dilrabo Qodirjonovna

Gi’jduvon tuman 5- makatab ingliz tili fani o’qituvchisi

Bukhara is one of the main cities on the Great Silk Road that have played a significant role in the origin, growth and development of literature couched in Uzbek and Persian-Tajik languages.

At the beginning of XVI century Bukhara was a capital of Turkestan and being the capital came to play a very special role in the development Uzbek literature and the Uzbek language since Shaibanids. At the same time the Tajik literature grew and developed. The literary life of Bukhara of the XVII-XVIII centuries significantly progressed on democratic foundation. In the last decade of the 20th century the modern western and eastern philosophies are keenly aware of the changes and switches in the mentality, psychophysiology and world outlook of the countries of the world.

After the Russian conquest (XIX century) in literary life new forms and genres evolved – publicistic essays, for example. Let us see some of scientists, writers and poets of Bukhara in 19th century.

Great writer, reformer, scholar and public figure Sadriddin Said-Muzhodzoda (after 1896 his penname was “Ayni”) was born on April 15, 1878, Gijduvan, Bukhara. His mother was from Shafirkan. Ayni studied at Kukeldash mosque and he belonged to the left wing of the Djadid movement. He harshly criticized the conservative and out-of-date regime of the Bukhara Emirate through vivid word painting of the Bukhara emirs and descriptions of the hard situations of the common people. The scholarly and literary legacy of Ayni is still of great importance, though it has aged. His creative works had three principal directions: fiction, history, and scientific research. Ayni is known as a historian for his works: “History of the Mangit Emirs of Bukhara and Materials on History of Revolution in Bukhara”. The author took place in the events he depicted. Ayni’s memoirs, in which he reflected on the occurrences of his life in Bukhara, are also of great value. The most significant part of his work was that of turning the historical events from the reign of emir Muzaffar into memoirs. It is the source of the history of irrigation, the financial and taxation system and the military actions of the emir’s army under the control of Salimbek himself while fighting against the troops of Bolshevik military commander Kolesov.

On April 14, 1951, he became an academic and at the same time, the first president of Academic Science of Tajik.

S. Ayni could perfectly speak in both – Tadjik and Uzbek languages. So that he created his works in both languages, added productive and significant contributions to the both nations. His main works: “Odina”(1924), “Doxunda”(1930), “Slaves”(1934), “The Creditor`s Death”(1939), “Memoires”(1949-1954). The play of “Odina” is considered the beginning of a new Tajik literature. Meanwhile “The Slaves” is the first Tajik novel, it is described the life of Central Asia from the beginning of XIX century till the thirtieth years of XX century.

In “The Creditor`s Death” is depicted the chameleon character which called Kori Ishkamba. Kori Ishkamba is compared with Gobsek, Plyushkin, Iidushka, Golovlyov and at the same time having the national Tajik features. “Memoires” demonstrates the childhood and adulthood of the author and gives the wide scenes of Bukhara society. For this book Ayni was awarded in 1950. Ivan Dzyube wrote research work about Ayni. In 1962, at the conference of Asia and Africa, S. Ayni was equaled with R. Thagor, Lu Sin, Taxa Huseyn. His works were translated in Russian, Ukrainian, Belorussian, Lithuanian, Polish, Czech, French and Urdu. He died on July 15, 1954, Stalinabad. organizing the best and the most talented in their struggle for enlightenment, further development of literature, independence, liberation of their Motherland.

Used literature:

1. Scientific and Cultural Heritage of Mankind – to the Third Millennium, Tashkent, 1997.

2. Ancient Bukhara, Tashkent, 2003.


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The Literature of Bukhara in XIX Century

Автор: Nabiyeva Dilrabo Qodirjonovna

Дата: 19.10.2019

Номер свидетельства: 523230

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