This article discusses the issues of effective organization of ecological education in the preparation of specialists of natural sciences.
This article discusses the issues of effective organization of ecological education in the preparation of specialists of natural sciences.
THE EFFECTIVE ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION IN THE TRAINING OF SPECIALISTS OF NATURAL SCIENCES
Taubaeva R.S., PhD, Almakhan Zh.B., Zakieva D.R.
Taraz State Pedagogical University, Taraz city
This article discusses the issues of effective organization of ecological education in the preparation of specialists of natural sciences. The problems of environmental awareness population of the republic. It is said that one of the prerequisites for the preservation of human capital is to increase the level of ecological knowledge. Are given accurate information about eco catastrophes on the territory of the Republic of Kazakhstan. lso referred to the need to the creation of documentary information about the ecology of the environment in the country's media, especially in TV channels weekly. Consider about the necessity regularly broadcast in the media of the results of the annual updates of environmental maps of the region, the creation of a directory and of ecological monitoring. It indicated about the necessity of practical training in the ecological centers in order to increase environmental awareness the educational program of higher education. For this takes into account the need to allocate credits for practice in the educational standards of training and technical education. It contains a sample of ecological education planning for natural sciences professionals.
Бұл мақалада жаратылыстану пәндері мамандарын даярлауда экологиялық білім беруді тиімді ұйымдастыру мәселелері туралы жазылған. Мақалада республика тұрғындарының экологиялық сауаттылығын арттыру мәселелері қарастырылған. Экологиялық білімді арттыру адам капиталын сақтаудың алғы шарттарының бірі екендігі жазылған. ҚР аймақтарындағы экологиялық апаттар жайында дәлелді мағлұматтар келтірілген. Сонымен қатар, еліміздің ақпараттық құралдары тарапынан, әсіресе, телеарнадан апта сайын қоршаған орта экологиясы жайында деректі хабарламалар беруді жолға қоюдың қажеттігі айтылған. Еліміздің облыс аймағының экологиялық картасының жыл сайын жаңартылуы және экологиялық каталогын құрастырып, мониторинг жасалуы нәтижелерінің ақпарат құралдарынан үнемі берілу қажеттігі келтірілген. Жоғары оқу орындарының білім беру бағдарламасы бойынша экологиялық білімділікті жетілдіруде арнайы экологиялық орталықтарда практикаларын өткізу қажеттігі көрсетілген. Ол үшін педагогикалық және техникалық оқу орындарының білім беру стандарттарына арнайы практикалар үшін кредиттер бөліну керектігі келтірілген. Жаратылыстану мамандықтары үшін экологиялық білім беруді жоспарлау үлгісі келтірілген.
В данной статье рассматриваются вопросы эффективной организации экологического образования при подготовке специалистов естественных дисциплин. Рассмотрены вопросы повышения экологической грамотности населения республики. Сказано о том, что одной из предпосылок сохранения человеческого капитала, является повышение экологических знаний. Приведены достоверные сведения об экологических катастрофах на территории РК. Также упомянут вопрос о необходимости создания документальной информации об экологии окружающей среды в СМИ страны, особенно еженедельно в телеканалах. Рассмотрены о необходимости регулярной трансляции в СМИ результатов ежегодного обновления экологической карты территории области, создания экологического каталога и проведения мониторинга. Указана необходимость прохождения практики в экологических центрах для повышения экологической осведомленности в рамках образовательной программы высших учебных заведений. Потому приведен потребность выделения кредитов для практики в образовательных стандартах педагогических и технических учебных заведении. Дается образец планирования экологического образования для специалистов естественных дисциплин.
As you know, environmental problems of modern scientific and technological development are growing from year to year. Along with the scientific, material and technical development of any country, their harmful effects on the environment are revealed. At the Rio conference in 1992, it had been concluded that the market-consumption model of developing countries would result in the loss of human lives. The ecological bases of sustainable development of the Republic of Kazakhstan contain the following concepts: achievement by the state of the goal to ensure a favorable environment for human life and health; protection of the environment and biodiversity; ensuring and realization of the rights of the Republic of Kazakhstan to extract its own natural resources and protection of national interests in the use of natural resources and impact on the environment; equitable satisfaction of the needs of modern and future generations; environmental protection; compliance of environmental regulation with the requirements of social and economic development, taking into account the state of the environment; preservation of the right of everyone to access to environmental information and full public participation in environmental protection and sustainable development; ensuring transparency of measures taken in the field of environmental protection; and the environment-habitat, and its deviation from the natural As in other countries, the preservation of natural purity and environmental literacy-is to ensure the biosphere safety of the population.
One of the tasks that must be performed in accordance with the Environmental code is the organization of work on the dissemination of environmental knowledge, improving the level of environmental culture, the development of a system of continuous environmental education . But are the above-mentioned measures currently being implemented: "respect for the right of everyone to access to environmental information and full public participation in environmental protection and sustainable development, ensuring transparency of measures taken in the field of environmental protection"? What types of work need to be organized and carried out to perform "" questions arise. Some environmental problems can not be solved without specific chemical studies, that is, to have chemical environmental laboratories in regional centers and to have a high level of functional literacy of specialists working in this field to represent the composition of the biosphere (air, soil, water) and conduct specific research-chemical examinations indicating the reasons for their change. However, on the basis of the monitoring, it is possible to carry out analytical monitoring of air and soil water pollution and prevention of radioactive contamination. Chemical monitoring, created as a result of research, is based on the following basic methods of ecology: system approach; control over the state of the environment; experiment and modeling. Among the above methods, methods that are compatible with the chemical environment, methods of environmental control. Meteorological control, temperature measurement, determination of the chemical composition of water, salinity, transparency, nature of the soil environment,measurement of background radiation, determination of chemical and bacterial contamination of the environment, etc. b. subject to environmental monitoring. Currently, special attention is paid to monitoring of practical importance. The overall objective of monitoring through geological, biological and chemical studies is monitoring, evaluation and prediction. Therefore, consideration of the issues of effective organization of environmental education is one of the main objectives of this research work and the task of bringing ways to effectively address the related problems.
The development of the system of environmental education and training in Kazakhstan refers to the strategic goals and objectives of environmental safety. In ensuring sustainable development in the country, it is necessary to implement the tasks related to the following environmental issues: stabilization of the quality of the environment; creation of an effective system of environmental management and environmental protection; conservation of natural resources; including scientific and information support for sustainable development. These tasks are of particular importance for the sustainable development of our Republic (considered in the concept of "environmental safety of the Republic of Kazakhstan" of 30.04.1996) .
President N. Nazarbayev B. Nazarbayev pointed out in his message about the need to preserve human capital . But every year more and less emergencies occur, large extraction of natural resources and primary processing on their land have a harmful impact on the environment.
The process of environmental safety-ensuring the protection of the environment from real and possible threats; set, system of medical, biological, environmental, legal measures aimed at maintaining a balance between the biosphere and external anthropogenic and natural factors. One of the mandatory areas of implementation of this system is the effective organization of environmental education. Environmentally competent patriots can become a reliable future for their country. Solving the problem of sustainable development in the system of environmental safety, the eradication of environmental illiteracy of every person and the modernization of environmental education in schools. In General, in other countries, for example, in the plans of higher education institutions of neighboring Russia, special disciplines are studied to improve knowledge about the main problems, production, nature, ecology of the region where they are located. Member of the State Duma of Russia for ecology and environmental protection Fokin said that" citizens should know the environmental situation in the region of their residence and take into account their views in decisions related to the improvement of the environmental situation."
There are no radiation emissions in our country, there is no information about the research work, information scientists in this direction and even the size can be practically counted on the fingers. Where do educated young people - schoolchildren and students get information about the scientific and creative search for the environment? Is the information really available? Therefore, it is necessary to modernize environmental education.
In many countries, it is clearly decided to form and improve environmental knowledge of University students about the environment. The educational program of universities located in each region includes disciplines on the study of the ecology of the region. Environmental knowledge provided in our country, in a generalized form and especially in the state language chemical ecology, biological ecology, etc. b. the amount of educational literature is very small. In celebration of the 20th anniversary of the Assembly of people of Kazakhstan at the Eurasian national University.L. N. Gumilyov held the Republican scientific-practical conference "Assembly of people of Kazakhstan-a unique Institute of interethnic harmony".Great work sarybekova. But at present there is not enough educational literature, which continues to work as a scientist. In connection with the improvement of biological, chemical environmental education, the number of textbooks published in the Kazakh language is very small (over the past 5 years, there are only three-dimensional textbooks published in the author. H. V. V. D. D., Professor S. - M.: Science, 1978. In fact, the works of scientists, protected by the environmental direction, a lot, but in fact, recommended by textbooks for schools, few published works are not used in the study of environmental direction. In the external assessment of students ' knowledge of environmental disciplines (VOOD) there is a lack of textbooks in the state language.
Environmental problems in each region of the Republic is enough, as in all the lands provided to investors, during the development, processing, transportation of minerals to the environment spread harmful substances. Due to the fact that most of the territory of the region was transferred to foreign investors, mining sections, mines were opened, processed, products of primary processing of uranium radioactive substances are transported by Railways of the city. What is the ecological characteristic of this process? In the city of Taraz, Karatau uranium from the zone of radiation or radioactive substances, as in other areas does not exceed the maximum permissible concentration of the center of the region, which is subject to recovery from raualda information about the person without special exceeding the message, why? Why do the white clouds in the sky turn into black clouds, as in the war periods? In Russia, with the help of unmanned aerial vehicles, work is underway to collect radioactive dust in the clouds. Why don't we conduct such large-scale environmental studies? Only one of the Chui, Kulan, Sarysu, Kordai districts of Zhambyl region, as necessary investors, destroy the mountain and the stone, carry out primary processing of minerals (the content of harmful substances that extend to primary processing is practically not controlled). Over the past two years, two major accidents that occurred in the region, have a serious danger to human settlements. When transporting near the Buryl station in this zone, there can be no harmful effects on the health of the population of the region of explosions that occurred in the production of "Kazphosphate" at the beginning of the year and the spill of concentrated sulfuric acid in tanks transferred as a result of an accident on the railway terrain. Reducing the environmental consequences that occur in the waiting list of health clinics in the city, in the past antibiotics in the treatment of pain in disrepair, ie t replaced by antibiotics.b. feedback on funding. Such questions can be said not only in Zhambyl region, but also in all regions of the country. 30% of radioactive contamination, which poses a serious threat to the environmental safety of Kazakhstan, is radioactive gas-radon. Radon (Radonum)-a radioactive chemical element; inert gas; radon the first American physicist R. Owens noticed the decay of thorium (1899). The most stable isotope 222Rn (T1 / 2= 3,823 days), that is, the half-life can be considered about 4 days. It is very toxic, at decay forms not volatile radioactive products (isotopes Po, VI, Pb), hardly measurable from an organism; in medicine (radon bath, t. b.), in technology, biology, nature uses a certain dose to determine the radioactive elements. In mountainous areas due to the presence of radioactive radon gas between the stones can be seen orange, blue, purple floating colors (Color varies) than far. In such places it is forbidden to travel and relax.
The purity of the content of natural water resources covering the territory of the region, beginning with the Kyrgyz Republic, is steady. Annually 6 billion m3 of wastewater contaminated with chemical additives, up to 3 million m3 of water are poured into the reservoirs of Kazakhstan. tons of harmful substances are sucked into the air, $ 200 million. solid waste can be removed for disposal . Take the example of only one multiplier - a lead ingredient from atmospheric pollutants. Lead is a polytropic poison. Its small concentration in the body, damages and destroys organs and tissues, blood system, Central nervous system, immune system. High content of lead in the atmospheric air of Ust-Kamenogorsk, Zyryanovsk, Leninogorsk. According to the spectral analysis of hair, it was 6 times more than the residents of the city with the maximum content of lead. A number of quantities of lead are taken by residents through water, food. Therefore, the number of patients with white blood is growing in East Kazakhstan. To obtain 1 ton of lead in the marketable condition, it is necessary to produce 1000 tons of ore, to produce up to 5 tons of free rock. Concentration of lead in polymetallic ores of Kazakhstan from 0,32 to 0,8 %. This figure is 1.5 / 2.5% for the richest ore sources. Depending on the accumulation time in the tailings, the lead content in the production waste reaches 0.4%, 0.7%, sometimes up to 1.5%. In this regard, these man-made waste over a long time, the harmfulness of trace elements in them, of course, increases for the environment. In General, to date, the amount of man-made waste of non-ferrous metallurgy enterprises of Kazakhstan-9,139 billion tons. In the Republic, 16.5% of waste falls on the ecosystem of East Kazakhstan, only one production Association "zhezkazgantsvetmet"-13.5% of waste accumulated (912046 million us dollars).t), and in the production Association "Sokolov-Sarbai"42.9% of waste is accumulated .
Currently, the country is working on the complex "Baikonur". As you know, in the spring from year to year increases the "ecological disease" of fruits and vegetables, which leads to a sharp change in the state of equilibrium in the atmosphere in nature. Parts of missiles hit the ground, fallen missiles, spills of highly toxic fuels from the rocket, etc. b. creates a real environmental threat. To provide launch vehicles from the Baikonur cosmodrome with a total area of $ 12.24 million. the special area of falling with equal parts on the area is allocated. In this regard, the issue of reducing the impact of rocket and space activities on the environment and public health, ensuring the environmental safety of the rocket and space complex is still of concern to the population. As you know,gases released from underground tanks during the discharge of gas and oil into transport pollute the air of the city. Therefore, it is necessary to carry out activities aimed at improving educational literacy in the ecology of the region in universities located in the territory of each region.
Regular coverage of environmental problems in the media has a positive impact on the effective solution of the above problems. It is important to effectively modernize the system of environmental, chemical and biological environmental education, as the University (University) is improving the educational competence of each generation on environmental safety and self-control of the environment. In the state educational standard of higher education institutions, special subjects related to environmental safety are studied as a compulsory or one of the subjects of choice. But the nature of teaching this subject must be organized in a new way. For example, the introduction of environmental education among professional pedagogical practices in the working curricula of pedagogical universities could improve the quality of education. Below is a table of modernization of environmental education in the pedagogical University (table 1).
Model of environmental education planning for natural specialties
With industries to improve environmental education
natural specialties that require connection
1.General provisions Organization of environmental education
1.1 Availability of disciplines in the curriculum (RUP) as a mandatory discipline;
1.2 Implementation of environmental education practice in the educational standards of the specialty (increase in the number of practice credits of the model plan))
1.3 Planning of at least 1 credit (15 hours) practice in environmental centers of the region, conclusion of contracts
2.Evaluation of results of environmental education
2.1 Report on the results of the practice
2.2 Execution of creative works (essay writing, research design of the study, the reporting of the media, etc.) b.)
2.3 Participation in external evaluation of educational achievements (EEA))
2.4 Reduction in theses
The establishment of close links between universities and environmental centers conducting research on the environment contributes to the environmental literacy of students. In practice, the skills of independent search are formed, realizing that the protection of the environment is not limited to cleaning up street debris and planting trees, as well as the presence of other important factors for life. At the University on working curricula "fundamentals of life safety" in the field of chemistry and ecology "chemical ecology", "biological ecology", "Ecology", etc. disciplines relating to the environment are being studied. These subjects are always ready to answer the question of what level of education, i.e. lectures and laboratory classes. Teaching of subjects is traditionally held in the classroom, knowledge is formed within the University, in practice, students remain limited environmental knowledge about their regions of residence. And in close contact with life, production, organization of practices, travel to places of environmental danger. From this point of view, it is now necessary to organize and conduct a 2-week environmental practice in the working curricula of the University. If the University has no close connection with the environmental center in the city center, the ecology of the biosphere is considered as a subject, environmental knowledge is not specified. The formation of environmental knowledge of students at an insufficient level is due to the lack of requirements for the practice and linking with the life of the region of environmental disciplines of the University. Many special channels are not issued environmental data are given only the understanding that in this day boarding trimmed seats and trees. In the media on radiation-hazardous emissions, toxic substances, extending in the period of processing and transportation of mineral resources in every region of the country, you might say, is not clear. On the TV channel of the country, advertising related to unnecessary trade occupies a large place, and the main environmental problems with specific programs and messages are not provided. There is no information about ecological scientific researches and their results. Therefore, in order to ensure that in the future in the education of the young generation specialists of natural Sciences were environmentally educated, the correct organization of environmental education in educational institutions, especially in high school.
Every year the Environmental map of the regions of Kazakhstan is developed and updated and formed as an environmental catalog, monitoring, presentation of their results in the media-an important problem of environmental literacy.
One of the measures aimed at improving environmental education should be the systematic organization and management of activities, close cooperation between higher education institutions (universities) and environmental departments of the city. Students should properly understand the environmental problems in the area, apply knowledge in their future career. Between environmental centers and universities signed agreements aimed at the formation and improvement of practical skills of students, fixed theoretical knowledge in close cooperation with the environment. To date, University students are provided with theoretical knowledge on 2 or 3 credits on the basis of the standard, but there is little opportunity to experiment on installations related to the study of the biosphere; no information about the ecology of the region is available; therefore, it is necessary to provide the necessary conditions for the practical combination of theoretical knowledge with practice. With quality organization chemical, biological, geological formations should consider the following issues: the ability of students to conduct experiments and to develop practical skills on modern equipment for studying the biosphere, oil and food, the environmental centres in cities; the availability of necessary information for the complete study of the ecological state of the territory where they live; planning and conduct of the environmental centers of practical training in the curriculum of the specialty, is not less than 1; it is necessary to optimize and modernize environmental education, i.e. to have a creative connection between universities and environmental centers, to jointly manage search operations; to have in centralized environmental laboratories modern equipment used for environmental research (in one city several universities, all of which are not advisable to purchase new equipment at the expense of public funds, since the cost of each equipment abroad exceeds one million tenge).
Thus, for some natural specialties it is necessary to improve the content of state educational standards for more effective solution of environmental education issues.
1. General provisions the Concept of ecological education of the Republic of Kazakhstan. - Moscow: High school, 2002.
2. Environmental code of Kazakhstan, Astana 2007
3. The concept of environmental safety of the Republic of Kazakhstan. - Moscow: High school, 2002.
4. N. Nazarbayev B. Message Of The President Of The Republic Of Kazakhstan N. Ah. Nazarbayev to the people of Kazakhstan" Kazakhstan's way – 2050: common goal, common interests, common future".
5. Phone: 8 (7182) 32-07-30 Ecology and environmental protection: textbook [Electronic resource].- Moscow: Higher School, 2008. – CD-ROM. The title. From the container (E-book).
6. Tuleubaev B. A. Fundamentals of radiation safety (rules, regulations, activities) : textbook / B. A. Tuleubaev.- Almaty: ECO, 2009.- Moscow: Science, 1978.
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