Методическая разработка урока элективного курса в 9 классе "Британская архитектура"
Методическая разработка урока элективного курса в 9 классе "Британская архитектура"
Данный урок разработан для элективного курса в 9 классе Культурная жизнь Британии. Знакомит учащихся с разными архитектурными стилями Британии:Готическим,Ренессансом,Елизаветинским, Викторианским,архитектурой 20 века. А также учащиеся познакомятся с известными архитекторами всех эпох Британии.
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«Методическая разработка урока элективного курса в 9 классе "Британская архитектура"»
Урок № 2, 3
Тема урока: «Британская архитектура».
Цели и задачи урока:
Обучающие и развивающие цели:
Развивать навыки чтения с извлечением необходимой информации
Развивать внимание, мышление, восприятие, память.
Развивать навыки самостоятельной работы.
Проконтролировать знания учащихся об основных архитектурных стилях Британии.
Воспитательные задачи. Развивать уважение к истории и культуре страны изучаемого языка
Оснащение урока: иллюстрации с архитектурными строениями, распечатки заданий для контроля понимания чтения.
T: Hello, boys and girls. First of all I want you to look at the blackboard. You see there are some illustrations. Please think what our lesson is devoted to. Read the words on the blackboard: “All great art is believed to be thought – provoking”.
T: How do you understand the words “thought – provoking”. Try to guess their meaning.
P: I think art makes people thing about the beauty around them, About life.
P2: In my opinion art wakes up people’s fillings such as admiration, enjoyment.
T: Very well. What kinds of art can you name?
P1,P2,P3: Architecture, sculpture, literature cinema, theatre, painting, music.
T: Today, as you have already guessed we are going to discuss British architecture.
Основная часть урока:
Introduction of the pupils at the lesson. .
T: boys and girls, you’ve got texts about British architectural styles. Read them. Then you’ll get papers with tasks to control your understanding the texts.
Gothic architecture. In this architectural style it is pointed arches, soaring lines and height that predominate. In Britain, Gothic architecture is typified by the Early English, Decorated and Perpendicular styles.
Early English (Early Gothic)styles. This style appeared about 1150 and was probably inspired by French architecture. The Frenchman William of Sens built the choir of Canterbury Cathedral with the narrow, pointed, or lancet, windows typical of this style. Salisbury Cathedral is perhaps the most complete example of early English architecture.
Decorated style. This began about 1250. Piers and vaults became complex, and decoration profuse. The distinguishing feature of the style is the broad pointed window in upper part of the wall decorated with tracery. Until about 1300 the tracery patterns were composed of circles or segments of circles but reversed curves appeared after that date in Exeter Cathedral.
Perpedicular style. This style of architecture was wide spread in the 14th and 15th centuries. It is characterized chiefly by large windows with vertical lines of tracery. Examples of this style are the chapel of King’s College, Cambridge, St. George’s Chapel at Windsor Castle and several of the older colleges at Oxford and Cambridge.
Renaissance architecture. Henry VIII(1491-1547) ,like his French rival Francis I, admired and coveted the sophistication of the Italian Renaissance and did his best to induce Italian artists to come to England. Small colonies of Italian craftsmen sprang up in London and Winchester to act as both teachers and producers of work executed in the new manner. The Italianisms could at first be only superficial. Thus in Cardinal Wolsey`s palace, Hampton Court, both structure and design are fundamentally Gothic, but on either side of the court doorway Giovanni da Majano inserted terracotta roundels with busts of Roman emperors.
Soon afterwards England`s Protestantism led the country to turn to Protestant Germany rather than to Italy for its interpretation of the Renaissance. Even the colonies of Italian craftsmen disappeared. Unfortunately Germany had scarcely more understanding of Renaissance principles than England, and German handling of Renaissance forms was peculiarly clumsy. In Burghley House in Northamptonshire, built by German craftsmen for Lord Burghley, we find such absurdities as Doric columns used for chimney pots, and its decorative detail, if exuberant, is coarse. Nevertheless, the window area is immence, quite as large as in modern buildings. The contemporary Hardwick Hall in Derbyshire has more glass than wall. Here, the Renaissance principle of symmetry was accepted, but the Gothic love of the vertical persisted in the square, towerlike forms at each corner.
Covet -сильно желать
Sophistication – утонченность, изысканность.
Induce- побуждать, склонять.
Superficial - поверхностный, неглубокий.
terracotta roundel - терракотовая , круглая ниша для бюста
clumsy – неуклюжий, грубый
bust - бюст
Elizabethan architecture. This style of architecture is found in many large houses built in the second half of the 16th, century, in the reign of Queen Elizabeth I . It is characterized by large, square windows, classical towers and turrets, and elaborate plasterwork in ceilings, as well as the use of oak paneling.
Turret – башенка.
Plasterwork – штукатурная работа.
Oak – paneling - дубовая панель
Jacobean architecture. This style, a later offshoot from the Elizabethan, was perhaps used more widely. The ornamentation of the smaller houses, like Burton Agnes in Yorkshire, though still rich, is also less heavy and less vigorous than that of its predecessors.
During the Elizabethan and Jacobean periods, significant changes took place in the house. The enclosed court, a relic of the feudal castle, though still preserved in Burghley House, was generally abandoned, and houses were designed with projecting wings on either end of a central block, and perhaps also with a shorter protrusion in the centre. The resulting plan, shaped like E, though often said to be a compliment to Elizabeth I, was in reality the result of changed social conditions. During the Elizabethan and Jacobean periods, English architecture had fallen out of step with advanced thought on the continent. However, one architect of the time Inigo Jones (1573-1652), conceived an unbounded enthusiasm for Andrea Palladio, a 16th century Italian architect and theorist. In addition to studying his books, Jones went to examine Palladio’s many buildings in Vicenza, Italy. When Jones designed the Queen House, Greenwich, London, he discarded the lingering medievalisms of the Jacobean style, and substituted the restraint, order, and rule of Palladio’s late Renaissance manner. The plan is a perfect square with no projecting turrets or bay windows. Horizontally replaces verticality. The chimney pots, scattered in the case of the Burghley House, are grouped here and are unobtrusive. The windows, sufficient in size, punctuate the walls but do not replace them. Inigo Jones became the first great English architect to design Renaissance-Classical building. He is also important as a stage designer, particularly of masques.
Victorian architecture. This period was named after the English Queen Victoria, who ruled from 1837 to 1901. A great variety of styles were used during this period most notably that of the Gothic Revival. Churches, country houses, railway stations, university buildings, were all designed in elaborate Gothic. The same may be said about the Houses of Parliament (its main architects were Sir Charles Barry and Augustus Welby N. Pugin).
During the 19th century the full impact of the industrial revolution, the changes in transportation, the growth of science and archeology produced a materialistic philosophy. The romanticists of the early 19th century turned to the past as a vicarious escape from the present. John Soane copied the columns of the Roman Temple of the Sibyl at Tivoli for the Lothbury angle of the Bank of England. In some of his other work, like the Soane Museum in London, originally his home, he was capable of brilliant non-historical composition of geometric masses in architecture. Others, like Robert Smirke, designer of the British Museums, turned to Greece for inspiration.
During the last quarter of the 19th century a number of designers and craftsmen associated with the group of painters and writers known as the Pre-Raphaelites, protested against the materialism of their day and the ugliness of its machine-made products. One such was William Morris, who sought to revive handicrafts. Abortive though his effort was, his own productions are fresh in design. The Red House at Bexley Heath was designed for him by Philip Webb, who rejected all historical styles and designed his structures to fit their purpose and materials. As such, his work is an early landmark in modern architecture.
Vicarious – замещающий.
Temple – храм
To revive – возрождать
Angle - угол.
20th-centure architecture. Until about 1920, the dominant style in public building was “Imperial”- elaborate and rather old –fashioned. The arts and crafts movement left a legacy of simpler private houses and of town planning in the “garden-city” style. Modern functionalism was slow in arriving, but was encouraged by the arrival of leading German architects in the 1930s.
London County Council`s architectural office, headed by Sir Leslie Martin, led other public authorities in providing large-scale housing. The expansion of universities in the 1960s led to extensive building. Coventry Cathedral (Sir Basil Spence et al. ) and the Roman Catholic Cathedral in Liverpool (Sir Frederick Gibberd et al. ) are among the few large religious buildings of our time. New towns (e. g. Harlow, Cumbernauld) appeared, as well as such buildings as the “Economist” building and Vickers Tower, London.
Elaborate – сложный, детально разработанный
Large scale – крупномасштабный
Functionalism – функциональный стиль
Salisbury Cathedral is the most complete of …
Post reading tasks:
. I. Find the end of each sentence.
The Chapel of king’s college, St. George’s chapel of Windsor castle, Cambridge and Oxford colleges are the most complete example of …
Exeter Cathedral is the most complete example of …
Early English style
II. Match the two parts of each sentence.
1) The distinguishing feature of decorated style is … a) narrow, pointed or lancet
2) Perpendicular style is characterized by … b) the broad pointed window in the
upper part of the wall
3) The distinguishing feature of early English
style is … c) Large windows with vertical lines of
4) Robert Smirke is the designer of … d) The Red House at Bexley Heath
5) Sir Charles Barry and Augustus Welby N. Pugin e)British museum
were the main architects of …
6) Philip Webb designed … f) Houses of Parliament III.Answer the questions:
1)Which styles is Gothic in Britain typified by?
1) Who did his best induce Italian artists to come to England to act as teachers and producers of work executed in the new manner?
2) What is principle of Renaissance?
3) What is the Elizabethan architectural style Characterized by?
4) What is the distinguishing feature of Jacobean Style?
5) Who was one of the architects of the Jacobean period?
6) Which styles were used during the period of Queen Victoria’s reign?
7) Why did the romanticists of the early 19-th century turn to the past?
8) What is the 20-th century architecture characterized by?