Методическая разработка открытого урока "Рождество в Англии: традиции и обычаи."
Методическая разработка открытого урока "Рождество в Англии: традиции и обычаи."
В Британии Рождество отмечают 25 декабря. Эта дата, вероятно, еще в древности была выбрана по случаю зимнего фестиваля в Риме, который назвался «Сатурналия». Но подготовка к празднику начинается задолго до его наступления. Сначала идет Адвент – предрождественский пост, начинающийся в четвертое воскресенье до Рождества. “Have a Happy Holiday Season”, — говорят англичане друг другу в это период, что означает «Счастливого праздничного сезона». Адвент – это особый праздник, предусматривающий, в первую очередь, соблюдение церковных традиций, но некоторые ритуалы соблюдаются и в домах.
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School of the air
The huge distances in Australia are also a problem if you want to go to school, especially in Alice Springs. Alice Springs is in the very centre of Australia and is surrounded by the outback. Many of the families live in remote stations, hours from the town. Alice Springs School of the Air was the first of its kind in Australia. It used the radio to broadcast lessons to students in isolated farms. It was based on the same idea as the Flying Doctors.
Many of the students live on cattle stations but they also come from Aboriginal communities, camel farms, national parks, mining camps, road houses, remote police stations and tourist ventures. The students use transceivers (two-way radios), TVs, video recorders, CD recorders, computers and satellite technology on order to follow and complete lessons. Eight to ten students meet for a 30-minute lesson every day. Each student also has short individual sessions with the teacher to discuss how they are progressing and any problems they may have. They spend a maximum of three hours a week on the radio and most of the work is done via email at home.
The Alice Springs School of the Air has a Sports Carnival once a year where all the students, their families and the teachers can meet each other.
A web of lies?
The incredible growth of the Internet over recent years has caused problems for parents and teachers. Parents worry about which sites their children spend time on, who they chat to online and the possible effects that computer games might have on them. For teachers, meanwhile, the main worry is the way the Internet makes cheating easier!
Schools and universities say there has been a huge increase in plagiarism – taking other people’s words and ideas and pretending that they are your own. In the past, anyone who wanted to copy had to go to a library, find the right book, read through them, find the sections they needed and then physically write down the words they wanted to use. Nowadays, though, students can simply copy extracts from websites – while really desperate students sometimes copy whole essays! As if this wasn’t bad enough, sites offering to actually do homework – at a price – have also started appearing.
Despite all this, we shouldn’t assume that the Internet only brings problems. Indeed, you could say that for every problem the Internet creates, it also brings a solution. Parents can now use sophisticated controls to stop kids accessing sites that might do them harm, whilst new software helps teachers to detect copied work immediately.
One of the hardest things for teachers today is deciding how to mix modern technology with traditional study skills and how best to use the Web in class. As more and more schools install computers in every classroom, the role of the teacher is changing. Making sure students don’t just copy things and do learn how to quote copied work properly is part of their job, but so is designing suitable projects.
Living well around the world
According to a recent UNICEFF report, the Netherlands is the best place in the world to be a child, while the UK is the worst! The report looked at areas like health, income of parents and education, but also did research into how children felt about their lives – and why.
Several reasons for the country’s success are suggested: there are plenty of parks, play spaces and facilities for the young; the percentage of mothers who work is quite low; parents and teachers put less pressure on their children at school and don’t worry about their children’s grades; families are generally very open and they talk about everything. Because parents are more liberal, teenage issues that sometimes cause arguments in stricter societies aren’t usually a problem in Holland. Here’s what Dutch children say:
My parents spend a lot of time with me. We eat together three times a day and I often go to the park with my mum to play. We’re very close. (Margot, 6)
I really enjoy school most of the time. I hardly ever get bored and the other people in my classes are usually really nice and friendly. If I have a problem, there’s a special teacher I can talk to, which is great. (Robin, 13)
My parents are great. They help me a lot and they never force me to do things I don’t want to do. My life is very free, so I don’t need to get angry with my parents. The only problem is that now I’m older, they want me to look after myself more – and that’s difficult. (Ysbrand, 16)
It only takes Juan Mann to change the world!
In the modern world, it is not unusual for people to feel depressed or isolated. It can be hard to make meaningful connections with others. That was how “Juan Mann” felt – until the day he decided to start giving free hugs. What started as a desperate attempt to change his own life has transformed him into an international star, thanks to the power of the Internet!
On returning to Sydney, Australia, in early 2004, after travelling in Europe, Mann had a miserable year in which his parents divorced and he found himself lonely and out of work. It was a depressing time . “I was alone. My family was elsewhere; my friends had all moved on. It was just me and I had to do something,” said the famous hugger, who goes by the name of Juan Mann (“One Mann”), but who keeps his true identity secret.
“And I sat around for months doing nothing. Noticing, just watching the world. I didn’t have a lot of contact with people. I was just on my own. And I thought I would try to step out of that and try and do something different.”
And something different is exactly what he did! Mann went to one of Sydney’s main shopping districts holding a cardboard sign saying “Free hugs”- and waited. He expected to last an hour at the most and asked a friend to come along to protect him, and left his wallet at home.
After 15 minutes, however, a woman approached and told him that her dog had died that morning and that was also the first anniversary of the death of her daughter, and that she really needed a hug. Mann was happy to help!
His “Free Hugs” campaign continued quietly for a couple of years until a friend made a film of him and posted it on You Tube, the online video sharing site. Since then, it has been seen by over 14 million people and fans have started copying him. Last year, the video clip was named the most inspiring on the site.
Terrible jobs not a thing of the past
The Channel Four series The Worst Jobs in History returns this week with the nineteenth century. Among the jobs that will be looked at are the rat catcher, (which involved killing rats by hand) and boot boy (endlessly cleaning and polishing the shoes of the rich). It would be easy to think that such terrible jobs were a thing of the past, but the reality is that they have largely been replaced by other jobs where you might be exposed to dangerous chemicals or have to put up with high levels of noise; where you might die of boredom – or simply die!
Call centre worker. Many banks and other companies have call centres abroad where customers can ring for information or to complain. Levels of stress among workers are very high. They often work in cramped conditions, have to stare at a computer all day, and have little opportunity to laugh or joke with their co-workers.
One worker, from an Indian call centre, said, “People can be very abusive. They shout and swear, but often there is nothing you can do about their complaint. They then slam down the phone, and another person calls you straightaway. It’s awful. I’d like to leave, but the money’s quite good and there’s a lot of competition for jobs here in Mumbai.
Recycling plant worker. You are supposed to sort your own rubbish and put glass in one bag, paper in another, but unfortunately many people still do not do this. So workers in a recycling plant have to find the recyclable items from a big pile of rubbish and all for a minimum wage. Apart from the smell, they have to handle dirty nappies, rotting meat, used needles. “I’ve heard of people catching hepatitis from working in those places”, says Solomon Iwenofu. “I did it for a while when I first arrived in America. I actually got on with the people working there. We used to laugh about some of the things we found. After a while, I even got used to being dirty all the time, but, you know, I wanted to do better for myself and my family.
The Edinburgh Military Tattoo
Each summer in Scotland’s capital, Edinburgh , there is an explosion of events that is known collectively as the Edinburgh Festival. However, there is no single event called the Edinburgh Festival. For about three weeks from August to early September the city hosts several different festivals. Before making travel arrangements and booking accommodation visitors should check exact dates, as these do vary. The Edinburgh Festival phenomenon started life in 1947 and continues to grow.
The Edinburgh Military Tattoo. This is the highlight of the festival for many visitors and is held in the marvelous grounds of Edinburgh Castle itself. Spectators can watch and listen to the best military bands from Britain and the Commonwealth countries. This amazing spectacle of performers in traditional regimental dress marching and playing music delights over two hundred thousand spectators every summer. If you want tickets for this you’d better book well in advance, as it sells out very quickly. It is particularly popular with visitors from the USA, Canada, New Zealand and Australia who are keen to re-establish contact with their Scottish roots.
There is also the International Book Festival where famous writers and poets read and talk about their work. The novelist JK Rowling, creator of the Harry Potter books, has appeared here. There is also the Edinburgh Annual Art Festival and the International Film Festival, which takes place in June. The latest arrival of the Edinburgh festival scene is the New Comedy Festival which made its first appearance in 2008.
Sport is not just for participants; it’s for spectators too. Millions of people all over the world spend hours every week watching sports events on television, or at stadium. People enjoy being “fans” or supporters of one team or one particular sport personality, and many professionals are now as popular and famous as the greatest Hollywood film stars.
Spectators particularly enjoy watching international matches and contests, and events such as Olympic Games or the Football World Cup attract more and more spectators as time goes by.
The most popular spectator sport is football. Football is played on a Saturday afternoon in most British towns and the fans or supporters of a particular team will travel from one end of the country to the other to see their team play.
Many other sports are played in Britain including golf, in which you try to knock a ball into a hole; cricket, in which you try to knock a ball through some hoops; basketball, in which you try to get a ball through a net; tennis, in which you try to hit a ball so that your opponent cannot hit it.
The British are great lovers of all competitive sports; and when they are neither playing nor watching games they like to talk about them, or when they cannot do that, to think about them.
Films and Television
I think that TV is fast and reliable news service. We can be well-informed about other cultures, watch other countries. News help people keep up with trends.
But on the other hand TV is not good for people. It’s normal nowadays, to watch children gaping at the screen all day long, and they stare until their eyes pop out.
I watch TV very seldom because I haven’t much free time. I try to watch TV news every day in the morning before I go to my work. Sometimes on weekends when I meet with my friends we watch entertaining TV programs such as “6 kadrov”, “Comedy club”, “KVN”. But best of all I like the program which is called “Travel club”, because it gives me a chance to travel to another world without living my house. Far away countries and their customs and traditions come into my room.
As for films I prefer to watch science fiction films rather than detective and horror films. For example, I like “Lord of the rings”, “Back to the future”, “Night watch”, because these films give me some kind of relaxation.
I also like our old films such as “Priclucheniya Shurica”, “Kavkazskaya plennica”. I think these films are the best because we can watch them many times.
Tips for Language Learning
Anyone who has studied a foreign language knows how difficult it is to become really fluent. The way a language is spoken in the classroom is often different than the more informal style used in everyday life. Here are some suggestions to help you practice your language skills.
Find a conversation partner. Try to find someone that is a native speaker, and ask him or her to meet with you regularly to have conversations in that language. This is a great way to get experience, talking to someone with whom you feel comfortable. Maybe you can offer to help your partner learn your native language also.
Watch some TV. Try to find a foreign language TV station and watch often. At first the actors will seem to speak too quickly, but try to recognize a few words or phrases. Later it’ll become easier to follow dialogues.
If you are visiting a foreign country and trying to learn the language, you’ll want to take every opportunity to go out and practice. Each day make a habit of going into place like a shop, restaurant or bank. Successfully making a purchase or getting information in a foreign language will help you become more confident. As you become more comfortable in these kinds of situations, you can try to engage others in a bit of casual conversation-a comment about the weather, for example.
Frankly we, the British, are often criticized for the food we have, our cuisine doesn’t enjoy the best of reputations in the world.
I, for one, think that food is not so important. The main problem is not to eat too much and to keep fit.
Being Miss England, certainly, means being slim. I have to be on a slimming diet. Though “have (to)”is not the right word.
I enjoy my diet. My motto is: “We don’t live to eat, we eat to live.”
I believe a lot of people in this country are constantly overeating. Most of them have four good meals a day.
And the famous English breakfast! It is often called a cooked breakfast wich it really is.
Can you fancy eating at a time porridge or cornflakes or some other kind of cereal, bacon or ham, eggs toasts, rolls, jam or marmalade and tea or coffee to finish with? It’s too much of a good thing, isn’t? I prefer continental breakfast, that is just a cup of coffee and a roll. Now many people in Britain have the same, especially on weekdays when they are hurrying to their work.
Healthy body, healthy mind
Sitting around in front of the TV or computer all day makes you put on weight and feel tired. Regular physical activity burns calories and gives you more energy. Personally, if I don’t go running two or three times week, I feel terrible. When teenagers exercise, they notice that their school work improves because they are prepared mentally. So exercise can improve your grades, too!
Which activity to choose? The key to success is to take up something that challenges you and that you can still imagine yourself doing the future. If you want to be good at anything, from playing a musical instrument to learning a foreign language, you have to work hard and practice. Sport is no different, so if you go in for a sport you like, then there’s a good chance that you’ll carry on with it. Resist pressure from your parents to play their dream sport. In nine cases out of ten you’ll give up if you don’t enjoy it.
Team or individual? Most sports build physical ability, strength and coordination, but team sports can teach a sense of fair play and develop leadership and other social skills. But if you can’t stand the idea of teams, choose an individual sport like swimming, gymnastics or weightlifting.
H2O – this precious liquid
Wateris everywhere. It covers 70 per cent of the world’s surface and makes up 60 per cent of the human body. According to the United Nations, we need five liters of water a day just to survive, and another 50 liters for cooking, washing and sanitation. Yet only three per cent of the planet’s water is fresh – and most of this is frozen in the Antarctic and Greenland. Even so, there is still enough water for the Earth’s 6.5 billion people.
Global warming is having some strange effects on weather and rainfall, and causing an increase in the number of hurricanes. What’s more, rain is falling in the wrong places, with serious consequences – Australia now has a permanent drought, and in parts of Africa people have to dig deeper wells as the underground lakes that supply them are running dry. As usual, it is the poorest people in the world who suffer the most. One billion people worldwide are hungry because they don’t have enough water to grow food. Polluted drinking water is the main cause of infant mortality.
Fortunately, there are people who believe that access to clean water is a basic human right. The other day a friend gave me a key ring. The key ring was from the Polish humanitarian organization “I collect Water”. “I collect Water” organizes workshops for students, provides teachers with educational materials, sells “Water for Africa” key rings and T-shirts, and collects donations from people and businesses. Before, the idea of thisprecious liquid being easily available, was just a dream, but the campaign “I collect Water” has given many people access to clean water for the first time.
Coconut Island is a beautiful, tropical island with, of course, coconut palms, golden beaches and clear blue sea. I’m sorry, I made a mistake there. Coconut Island was a beautiful island.
There are still coconut palms, golden beaches and clear blue sea but not like before.So, what happened?
Well, the beach is full of people, sunbeds and umbrellas. The sea is full of speedboats, noisy jets skis and surfers. There are fewer palm trees because there are more and more buildings. Hotels, holiday resorts, guest houses, restaurants, swimming pools…you name it, Coconut Island has it. Paradise is no longer here, but the Paradise Hotel is.
Perhaps I’m the only one who has a problem with this? The tourists seem happy: the weather is wonderful, the food is tasty and cheap, and the sea is warm. The local people seem happy: there are many people selling things on the beach, there are lots more jobs and better roads. The developers are certainly happy, there is building work everywhere. So, why am I unhappy?
Well, I have a friend who was here five years ago. Her photo album is full of wonderful pictures of empty beaches. Also she has pictures of small, wooden bungalows on the beach. No need to book, she said, just turn up and you have the place to yourself-very basic, very cheap, very quiet and very peaceful.
Not anymore! The beach is never empty-it’s packed all day! There is music blaring from the cafes, children
expensive. Most of the hotels are full of holidaymakers who booked their trip months ago. I’m lucky to have a small room at the back of one hotel, and it’s still expensive.
Is this progress?
Books are cool
Young people in England have come third in a worldwide survey of reading skills. In a survey of teens’ favourite leisure activities reading came fourth( after watching TV, hanging out with friends and playing computer games). On average, teenagers read ten books for pleasure each year. This is largely due to an increase in the number of quality books now available for teenagers readers. After the success of the Harry Potter books publishers have realised that there is big money in books for young people.
Two teenage brothers from Cornwall, Chris and Tim Cross, have set up their own website, Cool-reads, to reviews of all the latest books. They rate books using a star system so you can see at a glance if it’s going to be a good or bad read. The site is a huge success with up to one million hits a month. Publishing companies that specialise in teen books always check the site to see if readers like latest books.
The world’s first ever boot camp for teenagers addicted to the Internet is in South Korea. It provides a mixture of millitary-style physical exercise and rehabilitation. The teenagers climb over assault courses and learn how to ride horses as well as participate in workshops such as pottery and drumming.
The aim is to cure them of their obsessive use of computers in a country with almost universal internet access. Concern over compulsive internet use is growing in South Korea where 90 per cent of homes have high-speed broadband connections and some online games players die from exhaustion after playing for days on end.
Psychiatrists estimate that up to 30 per cent of South Koreans are at risk of internet addiction. The rescue camp in woodland near the capital Seoul treats the most severe cases-they’re all male. During the 12-day sessions participants can’t use a computer and can only use their mobile phones for one hour a day.