Informal Contractions- Qisqartmalar
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Ingliz tili Og’zaki nutqda (speaking) ba’zan qisqartma talaffuzlar ishlatiladi, bu esa tinglovchiga tushinish uchun qiyinchilik tug’diradi:
“gonna” – going to o’rniga
wanna -want to o’rniga….
Bu holat norasmiy bo’lib, odatda faqat speaking yoki qo’shiqlarda uchraydi. Yozuvda yoki rasmiy suhbatlarda ishlatib bo’lmaydi. Odatda Informal Contraction ko’proq American Englishda kuzatiladi.
E’tibor bering: Yozuvda rasmiy qisqartmalar(isn’t, aren’t, can’…) kabi norasmiy qisqartmalarda (‘) qo’yilmaydi.
What are you going to do? →
Whatcha going to do? → Whatcha gonna do?
Do you want a beer?
Do you wanna beer? D’you wanna beer?
D’ya wanna beer? Ya wanna beer? Wanna beer?
ain’t = am not/are not/is not
I ain’t sure. You ain’t my boss.
ain’t = has not/have not
I ain’t done it. She ain’t finished yet.
gimme = give me
Gimme your money. Don’t gimme that rubbish.
Can you gimme a hand?
gonna = going to
Nothing’s gonna change my love for you.
I’m not gonna tell you. What are you gonna do?
gotta = (have) got a
I’ve gotta gun. I gotta gun.
She hasn’t gotta penny. Have you gotta car?
gotta = (have) got to
I’ve gotta go now. I gotta go now.
We haven’t gotta do that. Have they gotta work?
kinda = kind of
She’s kinda cute.
lemme = let me
wanna = want to
I wanna go home.
wanna = want a
I wanna coffee.
whatcha = what are you
Whatcha going to do? whatcha = what have you
Whatcha got there?
ya = you
Who saw ya?
Quyidagi so’zlarning ikkala xolatdagi o’qilishini bilish uchun o’sha so’zni belgilang va ekran pastidagi o’ng tomonda joylashgan screen readerdagi playni bosing
1. going to → gonna: /gʌnə/
2. want to → wanna: /wɔnə/
3. have to → hafta: /hæftə/
4. has to → hasta: /hæstə/
5. had to → hadta: /hædtə/
6. used to → useta: /yustə/
7. got to → gotta: /gɑt̬ə/
Contractions with “you”
1. did you → didja: /dɪʤə/
2. could you → couldja: /kʊʤə/
3. would you → wouldja: /wʊʤə/
4. how did you → howdja: /haʊʤə/
5. what do you → whadaya: /wʌdəjə/
6. where did you → wheredja: /wɛrʤə/
7. what did you → whadja: /wʌʤə/
Contractions with “of”
1. kind of → kinda: /kɑɪndə?/
2. lot of → lotta: /lɑt̬ə/
3. lots of → lotsa: /lɑtsə/
1. she would have → sheda: /ʃidə/
2. he would have → heda: /hidə/
3. we would have → weda: /widə/
4: I would have → Ida: /ɑɪdə/
5. they would have → theyda: /ðeɪdə/
6. you would have → youda: /yudə/
Other informal contractions
1. come on → c’mon: /kmɑn/
2. don’t know → dunno: /dənoʊ/
3. let me → lemme: /lɛmi/
4. must have → musta: /mʌstə/
5. might have → mighta: /mɑɪt̬ə/