The london of the capital of creat britain climate. sightseeing in london
The london of the capital of creat britain climate. sightseeing in london
Great Britain is situated on the British Isles. It consists of England, Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland, and is one thirtieth the size of Europe. Great Britain is surrounded by seas on all sides and is separated from the continent by the North Sea and the English Channel.
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«The london of the capital of creat britain climate. sightseeing in london»
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THE LONDON OF THE CAPITAL OF CREAT BRITAIN CLIMATE. SIGHTSEEING IN LONDON
Ағылшын пәні оқытушысы: Тұрғанбай А.
Great Britain is situated on the British Isles. It consists of England, Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland, and is one thirtieth the size of Europe. Great Britain is surrounded by seas on all sides and is separated from the continent by the North Sea and the English Channel. There are many rivers in Britain. They are not long but some of them are deep. The longest river is the Severn. There are many mountains in the north of England and in Scotland but they are not very high. The highest mountain in Great Britain is Ben Nevis. There are many lakes in Scotland. The most beautiful is Loch Lomond. Great Britain has a very good position as it lies on the crossways of the sea routes from Europe to the other parts of the world. There are many countries which are connected with Great Britain by sea. Thanks to Gulf Stream the climate of Great Britain is mild. It is often foggy and rainy. The summer is not very hot and the winter is not very cold. Great Britain is a highly developed industrial country. It lives by manufacture and trade. Its agriculture provides only half the food it needs, the other half of its food has to be imported. Britain is one of the most highly industrialised countries in the world: for every person employed in agriculture, eleven are employed in mining, manufacturing and building. The main branches of British economy are engineering, mining, ship-building, motor vehicle manufacturing, textile, chemistry, electronics, fishing and food processing. The industrial centres of Great Britain are London, Manchester, Birmingham, Leeds, Liverpool, Sheffield and others.
London is the capital of Great Britain, its political, economic and cultural centre. It’s one of the largest cities in the world. Its population is more than 9 million people. London is situated on the river Thames. It was founded more than two thousand years ago.
London is an ancient city. It appeared at the place where the Roman invaders decided to build a bridge over the Thames. There are four parts in London: West End, East End, the City and Westminster.
The City is the oldest part of London, its financial and business centre. There are many offices, companies and banks in this part of the capital. The heart of the City is the Stock Exchange. The Tower of London and St Paul’s Cathedral are situated in the City.
Westminster is also important part of the capital. It’s the administrative centre of London. The Houses of Parliament, the seat of the British Government, are there. Opposite the Houses of Parliament is Westminster Abbey where kings and queens have been crowned and many famous people were buried. The Houses of Parliament are often referred to as the Palace of Westminster.
The Towers of the Houses of Parliament stand high above the city. On the highest tower there is the largest clock in the country, Big Ben. Big Ben strikes every quarter of an hour.
To the west of Westminster is West End, the richest part of London. It is full of luxury hotels, super-markets, cinemas and concert-halls. In the centre of the West End the Trafalgar Square is situated with the famous statue of Lord Nelson.
To the east of Westminster is East End, an industrial district of the capital. Most of plants and factories are situated there.
The official London residence of the Queen is Buckingham Palace. The palace was built in 1703 by the Duke Buckingham. The daily ceremony of the Changing of the Guard takes place in its courtyard.
There are many museums in London. For example, the British Museum, the Natural History Museum, the Science Museum. The British Museum is the biggest museum in London. The museum is famous for its library — one of the richest in the world.
There are many beautiful parks in London. St James’s Park, Green Park, Hyde Park, and Kensington Gardens are linked together and form above 300 hectares of parkland in the heart of London.
Sightseeing tours in London usually start in Trafalgar Square. Ifs the centre of London, and I think ifs the best starting point for anybody's tour of the English capital. Tourists are particularly impressed by the Nelson Column there in the centre of die square. You can see it in many pictures, but you should see it in reality. Imagine, if s 185 feet high.
From Trafalgar Square you can go along down Whitehall and see the Houses of Parliament which stand in Parliament Square. It is a very large square. And no people around, only a tall policeman in the middle. The Houses of Parliament is a tag building that stretches for about 1,000 feet. At one end is the famous Big Ben. Behind is the Thames and Westminster Bridge. Of course, I'd like to mention Westminster Abbey. Westminster Abbey is a beautiful old chapel. It seems that the walls are all made of glass and it is surprising that they can hold a heavy stone ceiling like that. The oldest part of the Abbey is very ancient — it dates back to the 8th century. In the Abbey one sees several tombs that are made of gold and precious stones. Many English kings and queens are buried here. The south side of the Abbey is called die Poets' Comer where many of the most famous English writers are buried: Chaucer, Charles Dickens, Tennyson and Thomas Hardy. Here, too, are memorials to Shakespeare, Byron, Scott, Burns and Thackeray.
I must say that in London one meets the past and the present, the old and the modern. It is a city of contrasts.
If you are tired of walking about London, you can get on a bus — a double-decker, of course, and you can see everything very well from the top deck. The first impression is an endless stream of traffic — buses, axes, cars. As you get off the bus, yo can come across a pavement artist or a musician playing a guitar or a pipe.
London consists of three parts: the rich West End, the poor East End and City - its financial centre. Today over 50,000 ships come to London fly, and the part of the Thames where the London port is situated is the busiest waterway in the world.
I am interested in the history of London. I did a lot of reading on it. What impressed me mostly in the history of London is the Great Fire of London. It happened in the middle of the 17th century. The fire burnt for five days and destroyed the greater part of the city which was built with wooden houses. A monument near London Bridge still marks the spot where the fire broke out Sir Christopher Wren, the famous architect of that day, took part in rebuilding the city. After the fire wider streets and brick houses were built. The old church of St. Paul was among the buildings destroyed by the fire. In its place Wren built the present beautiful St. Paul's Cathedral. He lies buried under the roof of his own great work. These words are written on his grave:"If you want to see his monument, look around".
London is the capital of Great Britain. It is a very old city. It is two thousand years old. First it was named Londinium. In Roman times Londinium was a small town with the Thames in its centre. In 1666 there was the Great Fire of London. All Kings and Queens of England lived in London. London is not only the capital of the country but also a huge port.
London stands on the River Thames. There seventeen bridges across the river.
The population of London is about 9 million people.
London has three parts: the City of London, the West End and the East End.
The City of London is the oldest part of London. You can see narrow streets and pavements there. There are many offices, firms and banks in this part of London. The City of London is the financial centre of the United Kingdom.
The West End is the centre of London. There are many sights in the West End. They are, for example, the Houses of Parliament with Big Ben. It is interesting that the clock “Big Ben” came into service in 1859. Big Ben is the biggest clock bell in Britain. It weighs 13.5 tons.
The official London residence of the Queen is Buckingham Palace. It was built in the 18th century.
There are many museums, libraries and galleries in London. The Tate Gallery is one of the well-known galleries in London. Henry Tate was a sugar manufacturer. He was fond of paintings and collected many pictures.
The East End of London is the district for working people. There are many factories, workshops and docks there. There many cars and buses in London. There is the Tube (the Underground) in London, too. It is a good one.
The big wheel you can see is the Millenium Wheel or London Eye as it’s also known. It’s 135 m high with 33 glass capsules. The wheel was opened in March 2000 to mark the end of the 20th century and the beginning of a new millennium.
Opposite the Millennium Wheel you can find Big Ben, the famous clock tower and the Palace of Westminster, also known as the House of Parliament. This is where the government meets.
This is the Trafalgar Square with the National Gallery art museum in the background.
Nelson’s column is a monument to Admiral Nelson who died at the Battle of Trafalgar in 1815.
You can also visit the British Museum in Great Russel Street or walk over the new Millenium Bridge to the Tate Modern Museum. When it opened on 10 June, the Bridge had to be closed after just a few days because it was moving too much. On the other side of the Millennium Bridge is St. Paul’s cathedral. It’s a tourist attraction and you can walk 530 steps up to the Gallery and see London.
The test “The British Museum”
1. For many people who come to London it is a city of history and culture.
2. The British Museum is a small dark building.
3. Unfortunately, the British Museum doesn’t have a manuscript room.
4. There are more than 6 million books in the library of the British Museum.
5. The reading room is circular in shape.
Answers: True 2 False 3 False 4 True 5True
Big Ben is one of London's best-known landmarks, and looks most spectacular at night when the clock faces are illuminated. You even know when parliament is in session, because a light shines above the clock face.
The name Big Ben actually refers not to the clock-tower itself, but to the thirteen ton bell hung within. The bell was named after the first commissioner of works, Sir Benjamin Hall.
The Tower of London
The Tower of London is one of the most imposing and popular of London's historical sites. It comprises not one, but 20 towers. The oldest of which, the White Tower, dates back to the llth century and the time of William the Conqueror. Nowadays a lot of tourists visit the Tower of London, because of the Tower's evil reputation as a prison. The Tower is famous as home of the Crown Jewels. Today they can be viewed in their new jewel house. They include the Crown of Queen Elizabeth the Queen Mother which contains the celebrated Indian diamond.
Buckingham Palace, one of London's most popular historical buildings, was built in 1703 for the Duke of Buckingham. Later restored by Nash, the present facade was planned by Sir Aston Webb in 1913. At the west end of the Mall, Buckingham Palace is the London residence of the Sovereign.
Buckingham Palace is not only the royal residence: it's a small city under one roof. It has a cinema, a post-office, some caffees and a restaurant, a hospital and even a night club. More than 700 people work here every day.
The National Gallery
The National Gallery in Trafalgar Square has one of the best balanced picture collections in the world. It can show the progress of Italian painting from the medieval to the mature mastery of Renaissance; some outstanding pictures of the old Roman masters; an excellent choice of Spanish painters, with El Greco, Velasquez, and Ribera leading; a great variety of unsurpassed Dutch and Flemish masters; a most valuable display of French paintings from the early days of the Impressionists; and, of course, the bulk of the finest English painting, with Gainsborough, Turner, Constable, and Reynolds.
Trafalgar Square, set in central London, is one of Britain's great tourist attractions. A visit to the capital would be incomplete without going to marvel at Nelsons Column and the four giant lions at its base, or to admire the lovely splashing fountains and to feed the pigeons, who have made their home here. Built to commemorate Admiral Nelson, the square was named after the Spanish Cape Trafalgar where his last battle was won.
Westminster Abbey is regarded as the centre of this area. They say. the City was founded here near the monastery as far back as the 7th century.
Many English kings and queens and other famous statesmen, writers, scientists are buried in Westminster Abbey. Among them there are two queens rivals Elizabeth I Tudor and Mary Stuart. Oliver Cromwell. Charles Dickens. Rudyard Kipling, Isaac Newton and Charles Darwin. It is famous for the Poet's Corner, where most popular writers (Kipling. Chaucer, Hardy, Dickens), poets and musicians are buried.
The British Museum
The British Museum is an almost incomparable introduction to Egyptian, Greek, and Roman arts in all their branches, from pottery to sculpture; and it can hold its own with antiquity department of the Louvre or the prewar Pergamon Museum in Berlin. The collection has been arranged with great care, and the layout is clear and easy to grasp.
The Tate Gallery
The Tate Gallery in Millmank has a collection complementary to that of the National Gallery, for it presents modern masters of England and France. Its collections of French Impressionists is outstanding, and there are some fine examples of modern sculpture.
St. Paul's Cathedral
St. Paul's Cathedral is in the centre of London and is considered to be an architectural masterpiece.
St. Paul's Cathedral was the greatest work of Sir Christopher Wren. It is one of the largest churches in the world. Sir Wren was building the Cathedral for 35 years, completed it in 1711, and his aim was to build a church that could rival the great St. Peter Basilica in Rome. St. Paul was built of white stone.
On top of St. Paul's Cathedral is a high dome, which contains the Whispering Gallery, where whisper can be heard at a great distance.
The Victoria and Albert Museum
The Victoria and Albert Museum in Brompton Road has a splendid collection mainly of the applied arts, of all countries and periods, also a new Costume Court, and many exhibits of interest to any student of the visual arts.
Madam Tussaud's Museum
Madam Tussaud's is the most popular and talked about wax museum in the world. There are wax models of the famous and infamous, both living and dead, from every walk of life.
Elvis Presley, the Beatles, the Rolling Stones, Marilyn Monro, Michael Jackson, Alfred Hitchcock, Charlie Chaplin, the British Royal family, Bill Clinton, Jack the Ripper ... There is no other place where you can see all the celebrities at once, even if they are only wax figures. So if you want to rub shoulders with kings and queens or the latest pop stars, or probably with notorious criminals, this is the place to go.
This huge, highest big wheel in the world — one of gifts to Londoners and city visitors to 2000 32 cabins of a wheel calculated on 25 persons each, make a complete revolution for half an hour. Building was financed by the company "British Airlways". From height of 135 m there is the most beautiful view of London, and if weather is favorable, you will see a city and its vicinities in radius of 40 km.
City University London
The university is included strongly into first "six" of the most popular high schools among entrants. Despite its technical past, at the moment the majority of students it is trained here in art, business and social studies. Over the last 5 years the quantity of students has doubled. At university fine conditions for study, playing sports and active public life are created.
Hyde Park is one of the largest parks in central London, United Kingdom, and one of the Royal Parks of London, famous for its Speakers' Corner.
The park is divided in two by the Serpentine. The park is contiguous with Kensington Gardens; although often still assumed to be part of Hyde Park, Kensington Gardens has been technically separate since 1728, when Queen Caroline made a division between the two. Hyde Park covers 142 hectares (350 acres) and Kensington Gardens covers 111 hectares (275 acres), giving an overall area of 253 hectares (625 acres), making the combined area larger than the Principality of Monaco (196 ha/484 acres), though smaller than New York City's Central Park (341 ha/843 acres).
History of London - from Romans to modern days. Romans founded the city about 50 AD, and called it Londinium. They decided that it was a great place to build a port. By the end of the 2nd century Roman London had a population of 45 000 and a 20-feet-high wall around it, and like most of the other Roman cities, had a forum, public baths and an amphitheater similar to Roman Coliseum, that could hold 8000 people and was hosting gladiator fights. When the empire was declining, Rome refused to send new soldiers to London, and by 407 AD the city was completely abandoned. For the next 600 or so years, the area was torn between the Angles, the Saxons, the Jutes and the Vikings. These were the centuries of constant invasions and clashes of cultures. In 1040s King Edward the Confessor moved his court to Westminster Abbey, and so London became a royal city. Soon another group of invaders - Normans - conquered Westminster Abbey and crowned their King William there. William built a castle and a fortress for himself, from which he controlled his newly conquered territories. His home is now known as the Tower of London. Medieval London was growing bigger, and was a lively place; it had a horse market, where horse races and public executions took place, attracting large crowds. Londoners enjoyed archery tournaments, wrestling and ice skating in winters. But it also could be a brutal place to live. For example, the city had suffered from numerous plague outbreaks, the biggest one known as the Black Death, which killed almost the third of the city population. But the biggest disaster to hit London of that time was the great fire of 1666. Most of the buildings of the city were made of wood, and when a small fire started in a baker’s house, the wind spread the fire rapidly across the town. More than 13 000 houses were destroyed before sailors managed to stop the fire. To prevent such a disaster from happening again, the king commanded that all new houses in London should be built of brick and stone. Despite the disasters, London was growing bigger and wealthier, particularly when British Empire was becoming more powerful in the world. Colonisation and maritime-driven trade provided the empire with unprecedented wealth, turning London into the world’s busiest port city and a banking capital by the 18th century. The pinnacle of London’s accelerated development was during Queen Victoria’s reign, when the population of the city grew from 1 million to 6 million in just one century. This was a result of dynamic industrialisation, railway construction, as well as the opening of the first ever underground metro in 1863. In 20th century the city was much shaped by two world wars. Particularly during the World War II London was heavily damaged and tens of thousands were killed by the intensive bombing of the city. Today London is a vibrant and multicultural city of almost 9 million, and remains one of the world capitals of finance, art and fashion.