Исследовательская работа по английскому языку ученика 4 "а" класса на тему "Сравнение праздников День Петра и Февроньи и День Святого Валентина"
Исследовательская работа по английскому языку ученика 4 "а" класса на тему "Сравнение праздников День Петра и Февроньи и День Святого Валентина"
В основе исследовательской работы по иностранному языку (начальная школа) "Сравнение праздников «День Петра и Февроньи" и "День Святого Валентина" лежит анализ исторических сведений о жизни и заслугах Петра и Февронии, а также о жизни Святого Валентина, которые послужили образованию праздников, названных их именами.
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«Исследовательская работа по английскому языку ученика 4 "а" класса на тему "Сравнение праздников День Петра и Февроньи и День Святого Валентина"»
Project Manager: Nesterova Yuliya Andreevna
Institution: «Gymnasium №2»
In the presented research project on a foreign language (elementary school) "Comparison of the holidays "Peter and Fevronya Day" and "Valentine's Day", the author studies the history of the origin and traditions of holidays.
The author conducts a comparative analysis of them, and also provides the results of a survey of elementary school students on the subject of acquaintance with the history of holidays.
In the process of working on a research project on a foreign language (elementary school) "Comparison of the holidays "Peter and Fevronya Day" and "Valentine's Day", a 4th grade student set a goal to study the history and traditions of these holidays and compare them.
The research work on a foreign language (elementary school) "Comparison of the holidays "Peter and Fevronia Day" and "Valentine's Day" is based on the analysis of historical information about the life and merits of Peter and Fevronia, as well as about the life of St. Valentine, which served as the formation of holidays named after them.
In the proposed project on a foreign language (elementary school) "Comparison of the holidays "Peter and Fevronya Day" and "Valentine's Day", the author collected and analyzed information about historical figures, as well as legends and theories of education of the studied holidays, described the most popular traditions that accompany Valentine's Day and Family Day.
1. The history of the holidays "St. Peter's Day Valentine's Day" and "Peter and Fevronya's Day"
2. Rituals, traditions and customs of the holidays of St. Valentine's Day and the holiday of Family, love and fidelity.
One day, leafing through the latest issue of one of the Moscow newspapers, I found an entertaining article about the holiday "Day of Family, Love and Fidelity". After reading about the customs of this holiday, I involuntarily remembered about another holiday "Valentine's Day" In what they are similar, and how are they different? I couldn't answer these questions for myself, so I decided to conduct a study and compare the history and traditions of these holidays.
Communicating with the teacher, parents, grandparents, I restored some chain: 1. None of my relatives in childhood did not know the holiday "Valentine's Day", and they did not know the Day of Peter and Fevronya either. Only a few have heard of him.
2. Then the Iron Curtain is lifted, and Western culture penetrates into Russia. This happens after trips abroad, after the participation of young people in exchange programs, after the appearance of dubbed series on our screens.
3. There is a strong interest of teenagers in Valentine's Day, since at this age there is an interest in the opposite sex.
4. As a result, the celebration of Valentine's Day is becoming popular in Russia.
The object of research: the holidays "Peter and Fevronya Day and Valentine's Day"
Subject of research: the history of the holidays "Peter and Fevronya Day and Valentine's Day".
The purpose of the work: to study the history and traditions of these holidays and compare them.
Tasks of the work: 1. To investigate the history of the appearance of holidays; 2. To compare the traditions of both holidays; 4. To conduct a survey of different ages of the population and analyze the results.
Survey of students and adults;
Analysis of the received data;
Study of literature, various Internet sources;
Generalization of the found material and comparison.
The theoretical significance of my work lies in the fact that most people celebrate holidays in other countries, and they know very little or nothing about Russian holidays. Perhaps after my work, many people will think about the traditions of their country.
The practical significance of my work lies in the fact that the data of my research work can be used both in the lessons of the Moscow Art Theater and in English lessons, popularizing the native Russian traditions.
The relevance of my work: to revive the history and traditions of the feast of Peter and Fevronia, which has been in Russia since ancient times.
Hypothesis: perhaps the feast Day of Peter and Fevronia is in many ways similar to Valentine's Day.
Relevance. While studying this issue, I worked with various sources: an encyclopedia, scientific and journalistic literature, Internet sources and cinematography. I would like to note that this question is presented only from the point of view of describing the history and traditions of each holiday separately. None of the sources tries to draw parallels between these two holidays, compare them.
In my opinion, the goal I set in my work is new (no one has done this before), connected with modernity (the revival of ancient Russian traditions and imitation of Western culture).
This research paper is in a foreign language (English) The article on the topic "Comparison of the holidays "Peter and Fevronya Day and Valentine's Day" presents a comparative description of the history, traditions, symbols of two holidays: Peter and Fevronya Day and Valentine's Day, a survey of different ages of the population is conducted.
How are these holidays similar, and how are they different? And which holiday should we celebrate, and which of them is a stranger to our people. I couldn't answer these questions to myself. Therefore, I decided to conduct a research work on the English language (MHC) "Comparative characteristics of the holidays Peter and Fevronya Day and Valentine's Day ".
The material of my research project on the English language on the comparison of the holidays of Peter and Fevronya and Valentine's Day can be used in the classes on the Moscow Art Theater, in English lessons, in order to expand knowledge in this area and popularize native Russian traditions.
The history of holidays
The Story of Valentine's Day
The feast of love found its heavenly patron in 496. Only then did the Pope proclaim February 14 as Valentine's Day. Who was the mysterious Valentine? There are several legends that tell about the fate of the main saint of all lovers.
According to one of them, Valentin was a prisoner who went to prison for healing the sick with the help of an unknown force. People did not forget their savior and brought him notes. One day a note fell into the hands of a guard who, believing in the young man's abilities, asked him to heal his blind daughter. The doctor, who, by the way, was good-looking, agreed and cured the girl of the ailment. Seeing the white light and a handsome guy, the young lady immediately fell in love with her savior.
This story has a sad ending - February 14
the young man in love was executed. Knowing that he had very little time left to live, he wrote notes with confessions to his beloved and all close people. Hence the tradition of giving each other valentines.
According to another beautiful, but also sad legend, Valentine was a Roman priest who served in the third century AD. It is well known that at that time there was a ban on the marriage of soldiers — Julius Claudius II forbade soldiers to create families, who believed that wives prevented men from fighting quietly and defending their homeland.
Priest Valentin, contrary to strict prohibitions, continued to marry soldiers in love, for which he was sentenced to death. While in prison, the young priest fell madly in love with the warden's lovely daughter. The girl also reciprocated him, but she found out that the guy was not indifferent to her only after his death. On the night of February 14, Valentine in love wrote to the lady of his heart a beautiful confession of heartfelt feelings, and in the morning the death sentence would be carried out.
Family, Love and Loyalty Day and its traditions
In the nineties, the residents of Murom, where they always revered the holy spouses, decided to combine the City Day with an Orthodox holiday. So, by chance, a new Russian holiday was born, praising love and devotion.In 2008, the celebration of the Day of Family, Love and Fidelity was officially approved, and soon approved by the Interreligious Council of Russia. The symbol of the holiday of pure and unselfish love has become a chamomile - a flower that is especially popular with all lovers. Later, the Family Day had its own medal, on one side of which a daisy is depicted, and on the other — the faces of Peter and Fevronia. The medal is traditionally awarded to married couples in which love and mutual understanding reign.
Now the Orthodox holiday is celebrated in forty countries of the world, but the main celebrations are held in the city of Murom, Vladimir region.
Comparing the history of holidays
Family Day, Love and Fidelity Valentine's Day
1. It is celebrated in summer – on the last day of the harvest. 1. Celebrated in summer in winter.
2. A symbol of a strong family. 2. Family values are not the main ones.
3. Originated a long time ago. 3. Originated relatively recently.
4.. Was from ancient times in Russia 4 Was born gradually, by combining several legends into one.
6. Recognized by the church. 6. Forbidden by the church.1. The history of holidays
2. Rituals, traditions and customs of holidays
The life and love story of Peter and Fevronia
Prince Peter, who was the son of Prince Yuri of Murom, was struck by a terrible leprosy. All attempts to cure the unfortunate from the disease ended in failure, no one could restore Peter to health. Almost resigned to his fate, the man saw an unusual dream in which he discovered that there was a girl in the world who could heal the affected body.
In a prophetic dream, Peter was revealed the name of the savior - Fevronia. Fevronia was a peasant from a Ryazan village, the daughter of an ordinary beekeeper. The girl studied herbs from childhood and had the gift of healing, even wild animals obeyed her and did not dare to show aggression. The surprisingly kind and beautiful young lady immediately attracted the young prince, and he gave his word that he would marry the beauty immediately after recovery.
Fevronia put the man on his feet, but he did not keep his promise and did not lead the village girl down the aisle. Most likely, this was the reason that leprosy fell on the prince's head with greater force.
The messengers went for the healer for the second time, and Fevronia did not refuse treatment to the deceiver and gave him health again. After that, Peter married the savior and did not regret what he had done until the end of his days. According to legend, the couple lived in love, harmony and respect, never deceived each other and always spoke flatteringly about their halves.
After the death of his elder brother, Peter was destined to take city power into his own hands. The boyars approved of the respected ruler, but a simple peasant woman did not give them peace — no one wanted to see a representative of the lower class in power.
Boyar wives constantly slandered Fevronia, urging their husbands to live with the light of a clever and beautiful woman they did not like. One day, the prince was given an ultimatum — either to drive his beloved wife out of the house, or to leave the post of ruler. Peter did not hesitate for a long time, but chose to abdicate from power and decided to leave Murom altogether.
In exile, the wise young Princess strongly supported her grieving husband. When there were difficulties with food and money in the house, she always found a wonderful way out. Peter still worshiped his betrothed and never once reproached his beloved that for her sake he had to leave a high post and live in hardship.
However, the deprivation of the princely couple did not last long, soon the Murom boyars realized that it would be difficult to maintain order in the city without a competent ruler. Having come to their senses, they sent messengers for the prince and asked him to return with his wife to his hometown and take up the post of mayor again. Peter consulted with Fevronia and the couple, without resisting, returned home.
In love and harmony, the devoted spouses Peter and Fevronia lived to old age, and when they reached gray hair, they took monastic vows under the names Euphrosyne and David. As monks, the dearly loving spouses prayed to God for death on the same day. Dreaming of being together in heaven, they prepared for themselves one coffin for two, where only a thin partition was supposed to separate the two bodies.
The legend says that the elderly monks really departed to another world on one day — it happened on June 25, 1228 according to the Strom style, which corresponds to July 8 according to the current calendar. Living, as befits monks, in different cells, they died at the same hour.
The monks were afraid of the wrath of the Lord and did not put the deceased in one coffin — there have never been such burials in Christianity. The bodies of the deceased were in different temples, but somehow miraculously they turned out to be nearby. After such a miracle happened for the second time, the monks decided to bury the loving spouses together near the cathedral Church of the Nativity of the Most Holy Theotokos.
Only 300 years after his death, Prince Peter of Murom and his wife Fevronia were canonized. The Orthodox Church declared them patrons of the family, and the relics of the saints found rest in the Holy Trinity Convent in the city of Murom. July 8 in the Orthodox calendar is considered the Day of Peter and Fevronia.
Valentine's Day Traditions
On this day, it is customary to congratulate all the people you treat well - this includes parents, siblings, nieces and nephews, and, of course, friends. But the main focus on February 14 is on lovers, ladies and gentlemen of the heart.
In general, Valentine is an extremely convenient date to confess love to a long-adored object, bearing in mind that all ages are submissive to love. It is not a sin to adopt, for example, from the British the custom of sending a message in which there may be "laughter, tears, and love," an excess of feelings, vows of eternal loyalty, friendship and sympathy.
In the XV century, the British began to consider the magic date as an excellent opportunity for a written declaration of love, and in 1820 the release of special holiday cards began. Despite the fact that postal communication in the XIX century did not work as fast as in the XX century, statisticians recorded: on February 14, 1834, for example, about 60 thousand written confessions of intimate feelings were dropped into mailboxes in London alone.
However, this figure does not go to any comparison with the number of declarations of love by mail in 1988. Then about 16 million postcards were sent. According to rough estimates, in 1995 their number approached 30 million. In Russia, such a calculation, alas, was not conducted.
So, on Valentine's Day, or rather on the eve of it, there is a chance to encourage schoolchildren to express themselves, their feelings in writing. I propose to make this day a day of written declarations of love and sympathy. Let it be like a game. There are not so many reasons in life to pronounce and write really beautiful words, and it's sad and uncomfortable to live without them at all.
A funny fact is known: the longest correspondence (75 years) was maintained between I. McDougal from the island of Tasmania and R. Norman from England. It was MacDougal's death that stopped her.
But not only in letters pour out their feelings of romance. Indian Deepak Sayal managed to write "I love you" a hundred times and "I like you" one more time on a grain of rice that he gave to his beloved. His work was not in vain: he received the hand and heart of a lady.
The same Theseus in Shakespeare broadcasts: "All lovers, like madmen, have their brains boiling." Theseus is right, many people have "brains boiling" on this day. So, you can explain yourself in English, French, German and, of course, in your native language. It is only necessary to observe some rules: the sender of the "valentine" ("valentines") must do everything to arouse special interest and curiosity; the sender is obliged to keep a secret and remain anonymous. There is also a third rule - to be a faithful knight or lady of the heart of your cherished recipient all year round. However, this rule is rarely fulfilled by anyone.
So, an indispensable attribute of this holiday is written congratulations, they should be encouraged by all participants of the holiday. I remind you: on the day of the holiday, everyone becomes Valentine and Valentine, everyone writes "valentines" to each other. Once these letters and postcards were framed with ornaments, drawings, paper and real lace.
By the way, the first special envelopes and postcards appeared in London shops on February 14, 1761. Later, folding pictures were sold with messages inside them. These were the real congratulations of art. One detail was repeated in all the messages - the drawing of the heart, which became the emblem of this holiday for all time.
Rituals and customs of the Valentine's Day holiday
The established rituals and customs of the holiday. There can be many of them. Let's tell you a little about the most interesting of them.
The first is the delivery of baskets and bouquets of flowers through the state (or school) mail.
The second is that on the windows or specially prepared stands with felt-tip pens, you can write any love "zi-bao": "Vanya + Manya = Love", aphorisms, your own and other people's poems.
The third is that paper daisies are hung on the walls, on the petals of which one word or expression is written on the reverse side, such as "Loves, dislikes, spits, kisses, presses to the heart, sends to hell." On the petals can be written "predictions of fate", "fortune-telling". You open the sheet and everything is clear: "To hell with it," "Your companion (companion) will be a man with blue eyes, with a good and accommodating character, but... taller than you by one meter. We wish you happiness!".
The fourth is public fortune-telling on names. In ancient times, on the days of these celebrations, unmarried girls threw leaves with their names into a special box, from where they were then taken out by young people in turn. So it was decided by lot who would lead the company with whom this year.
Drawing names by lot was the only custom on this day. It was also supposed to introduce the first person you see on this day, if it is a representative of the other sex, into your house and present to the owner or hostess. It goes without saying that efforts were made to ensure that the first comer did not turn out to be an unsuitable person.
At a school holiday, this custom can be romanticized. All its participants will write their names on hearts. Girls - on pink, boys - on red. Hearts are thrown into beautiful jugs. Girls - to their own, boys - to their own. Then at some point of the holiday they will take out these hearts, learning the name of the betrothed, the betrothed. In England, such a custom established the right to be considered Valentine for the whole year. The game is so tempting.
Despite the fact that most of the respondents do not celebrate these holidays (53%), the Day of Family, Love and Fidelity (34%) is still more popular in contrast to Valentine's Day (13%).
But after writing my work, having studied many sources of information, I realized that the holidays are very similar. My hypothesis is confirmed. Both are very funny and mystical.
Then why do they celebrate the Day of Peter and Fevronia? Most likely because this holiday entered Russia quite recently and immediately attracted young people. In my opinion, these two holidays are very similar and instead of Halloween, it is quite possible to celebrate Ivan Kupala, which has been celebrated by people in Russia since ancient times.