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Английский язык . Пособие для учащихся средних профессиональных учебных заведений

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Английский язык Пособие состоит из текстов на английском языке, которые тематически связаны с будущими профессиями учеников (столяр строительный; плотник; газоэлектросварщик). Текстовый материал имеет лексико-терминологический словарь, обогащенный иллюстративным материалом. Ценность текстовом материала предоставляют образцы научно - технической литературы и исторические справки. Цель пособия - помочь ученикам: - Углубить знания по тем профессиональной направленности; - Усовершенствовать навыки устной речи; - Развивать коммуникативную компетентность; - Развивать самостоятельность, память, творческий подход к работе с текстовым материалом. Пособие дает возможность организовать индивидуальную и групповую работу учащихся, воспитывать у учащихся интерес к будущей профессии, к изучению английского языка. Текстовый материал и задания рассчитаны на учащихся с разным уровнем подготовки и знаний. Предложенный материал может быть использован учащимися при написании докладов, рефератов. Пособие для учащихся средних профессиональных учебных заведений
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«Английский язык . Пособие для учащихся средних профессиональных учебных заведений»

Министерство образования И НАУКИ

Луганской Народной Республики

АЛЧЕВСКИЙ СТРОИТЕЛЬНЫЙ КОЛЛЕДЖ ДонГТУ





Английский язык



Пособие для учащихся средних профессиональных учебных заведений

специальности: столяр строительный; плотник; газоэлектросварщик.

Подготовила преподаватель

Кнышенко Н. Г.





г. Алчевск

Пособие состоит из текстов на английском языке, которые тематически связаны с будущими профессиями учеников (столяр строительный; плотник; газоэлектросварщик). Текстовый материал имеет лексико-терминологический словарь, обогащенный иллюстративным материалом. Ценность текстовом материала предоставляют образцы научно - технической литературы и исторические справки.

Цель пособия - помочь ученикам:

  • Углубить знания по тем профессиональной направленности;

  • Усовершенствовать навыки устной речи;

  • Развивать коммуникативную компетентность;

  • Развивать самостоятельность, память, творческий подход к работе с текстовым материалом.


Пособие дает возможность организовать индивидуальную и групповую работу учащихся, воспитывать у учащихся интерес к будущей профессии, к изучению английского языка.

Текстовый материал и задания рассчитаны на учащихся с разным уровнем подготовки и знаний.

Предложенный материал может быть использован учащимися при написании докладов, рефератов.



















Contents.

  1. Joiner

  1. Construction Material.

  2. Window.

  3. Floor.

  4. Door.

  5. Vocabulary.

  1. Electrogaswelder

  1. Pioneers in welding.

2. Metals

- Steel

- Aluminum

3. Welding.

4. Vocabulary.





CONSTRUCTION MATERIAL

WOOD

Master the key terms and head words.

Content-содержание the…errs…the…err-чем…, тем…

To contain-содержать в себе the only- единственный

To decrease-уменьшать Increase-рост

Evaporation-испарение To increase- возрастать

Wood – древесина, Decrease-уменьшение, спад

Read the terminological combinations; translate them from Russian

  1. Wood industry-лесная промышленность

  2. Wood covering- деревянное перекрытие

  3. Wood fiber- древесное волокно

  4. Evaporation test- проба на испаряемость

Read the article

Wood has been a highly used building material since prehistoric times. Among other highly used construction materials there are concrete, steel, brick, stone, and plastics. They all differ in their properties and in the methods of usage. Construction material are known to differ in strength, hardness, fire- and corrosion- resistance durability, and, naturally, cost. Being the oldest building material, wood is also known to be the only naturally growing organic material. Is wood strong? Hardy so, because wood always contains some water which decreases its strength. But after the wood is cut, the water content starts to evaporate and as the water content decreases the strength of the cut wood and its hardness start to increase. It is a well- known fact that the drier is the cut wood the greater is its strength and hardness. Trees are known to grow naturally, which makes wood constantly renewable natural resource. Among other advantages of wood there are its low cost, low weight, and high workability. But, as any other construction material, wood has its disadvantages. The main ones are the following- it is not fire- resistant, it easily burns. Besides, it easily decays.

Master the key terms and head words.

Board-доска to determine- определять

To board-обивать досками to glue- клеить

Plywood- фанера to install- устанавливать

Strip- полоса, лента to laminate- расщеплять

Veneer- облицовка to require- требовать

Veneered-облицованный

Read the terminological combinations. Translate them from Russian.

  1. Glued board- доска, склеенная из фанеры

  2. Glued wood- склеенное дерево

  3. Lamination glass- слоистое стекло

  4. Veneering plywood - оклеичная фанера

Read and translate the article.

WOOD PRODUCTS

Wood used for construction purposes is usually changed into laminated wood or wood panel products. Large structural wooden members are produced by gluing small strips of wood together. Wood in panel form is more advantageous for many building purposes than boards. Why is it so? First of all, because wood panels are much easier to install than boards. They require much lees labor for the process of installation. Besides, swelling(набухание) and splitting(расщепление) in panels are greatly decreased compared with boards. As to plywood panels are made up of note that when wooden veneers glued together. It is of great importance to note that when wooden structures are designed the future stresses of their structural members must be predetermined.

Give the English equivalents of the Russian words.

Small (полосы)________________of wood are (склеены)_______________together.

Wood in panel form is more(предпочтительный)________________for some construction(цели)___________than(доски)_________(фанерные)_______________panels are made up of(тонкие)________________(деревянные)_______________veneers.

Translate the following combinations into Russian.

Wood veers laminated wood

Strip of land strip of wood glued together

Can you answer these questions?

  1. Does wood as a structural material have only advantages? If not, what are its disadvantages?

  2. Is wood a strong building material? If not, why?

  3. Does the water content in the cut would increase of decrease?

  4. What forms is wood changed into? And for what purposes? Compare wood in panel forms with boards. What do they differ in?

  5. What elements is plywood panels made up of?

Kinds of Wood

Древесина wood, timber

Березовое. Д birch wood

Дубовое. Д oak w.

Клееная. Д glued w.

Пропитанная impregnated w.

Слоистая. Д laminated w.

Д.мягких пород softwood

Д. твердых пород hardwood

Translate the giver combinations a) from into Russian; b) from Russian into English.

Timber

Floor-пол, этаж roofing- покрытие крыши

Flooring-настилка полов to roof- настилать крышу

Frame- рамка, корпус surface- поверхность

Removal- перемещение to belong to- принадлежать

Roof- крыша surface area- площадь поверхности

Floor boards- настил floor timber- половая балка









Read and translate the article.

Timber belongs to one of the oldest building materials. It has been from ancient times and is still produced from cut wood. Timber has always been highly usable in construction because of its many advantages. To these belong its strength, light weight, cheapness, and high workability. Its other advantage is that it belongs to natural resources and is naturally renewable. It is the more so that about a third of the world is still considered to be covered with forests. Besides, timber is resistant to corrosion produced by chemical substances in the modern polluted atmosphere. One more advantage of timber is that it can be used for many construction purposes. But, naturally, timber has disadvantages and the main ones are that it is not fire- resistant and it easily decays; especially if it is not impregnated. Besides, freshly cut timber contains water that may cause great structural defects. Removal of water from timber is a necessary procedure that should take place before timber is used in practice. It increases strength and workability of the material and, of course, its durability. What is timber mainly used for? Because of its many advantages it is highly used for producing window and floor frames, for flooring and roofing and for other various woodwork. Of them, hardwoods are popular as material used for decorative purposes: veneering in furniture and paneling. As to softwoods, they are mainly used for producing window and door frames and other kinds of woodwork.

Translate the following question. Answer the questions

  1. What structural materials does timber belong to?

  2. What is it produced from?

  3. What are the main advantages (disadvantages) of timber?

  4. Why is removal of water from timber useful for construction purposes?

  5. What are the two main types of timber?

  6. What are softwoods (hardwoods) used for?

  7. How much of the world`s land surface is considered to be covered with forests?

  8. What countries are rich (poor) in forests?

Translate the extract in writing. Use a dictionary if necessary.

Timber is wood, suitable for building and structural purposes. There are over 4000 woods in common use throughout the world. The best and most commonly used softwoods popular for structural work in many countries are redwood, whitewood, pine, red cedar, sequoia, best and some others. As to the hardwoods, the best known ones include beech, birch, black wood, chestnut, elm, mahogany, maple, myrtle, oak, rosewood, walnut and some others.







































Window









Master the key terms and head words.

Double-двойной single-единый

Cased-заключенный в… skylight-потолочное окно

Regulation-инструкция spring- пружина

Sash-оконный переплёт to slide- скользить

Shop-мастерская according to- согласно



Read the terminological combinations. Translate them from Russian.

  1. Sash bolt- оконная задвижка

  2. Shop window- витрина

  3. Sliding sash-раздвижное окно

  4. Skylight window- окно верхнего света

  5. Single- sashes window-одностворчатое окно



Read and translate the article.



The main functions of windows are light and ventilation. Windows also serge for ornamentation of a building since ancient times. In those faraway days windows were frequently produced in shops. While nowadays windows are mostly produced in factories. What are the necessary components of a window? To these belong glass, frames, and sashes. The area of glass in windows of different types is determined according to the regulations. For example, in a modern housing construction the area of a glass should be equal at least to one length of the floor space. Window frame may be solid or cased frame carrying the sashes. As to sash it is a separate light frame that serves for carrying the window glass. There exist single-hung and boodle- hung windows. Both of these types possess one or two mowing sashes, securely held in tracks in the frame. Sashes can be fixed or sliding that slide up and down in tracks in the frame. In order to counterbalance the weight of the sashes, double- hung windows are supplied with a system of special spring. Fixed windows are practically impenetrable: they do not leak air or water; they are wind- proof. But they have their disadvantages: they can be opened only to not more than their size. Windows may also by place in roofs. Roof windows may be fixed or operable. Fixer windows are skylights while operable are roof windows.



Pair works. Put these questions to your group mate. Let her/him answer them.

  1. What are the three functions of windows?

  2. Where were windows produced in faraway times?

  3. Where windows are mostly produced nowadays?

  4. What factor determines the area of glass in windows of different types?

  5. What should the area of a windows glass be equal to?

  6. Which part of a window carries the sashes?

  7. Which part of a window carries the windows glass?

  8. How are windows classified nowadays?

  9. Do fixer and sliding sashes differ? In what way do the duffer?

  10. What system are boodle- hung windows supplied with?

  11. What type of windows is impenetrable?

  12. Where are skylights placed?





















Floor



Master the key terms and head words



  1. Floor- настил, пол, этаж to follow- следовать за

  2. Flooring- деревянный настил to influence- влиять на

  3. Combustion- горение to measure- измерять

  4. Homogeneous- однородный nozzle- сопло, наконечник

  5. To deal with…- иметь дело с … reflection- отражение



  1. Measuring device – измерительный прибор

  2. Poured- in-place floor- наливной пол

  3. Like poles- одноименные полюса

  4. Hard waster- твердые отходы



Read and translate the article



Floors belong to one of the most important functional components of a building. Floors influence the acoustics of a room: it depends on whether hard or soft flooring is used. Floors also react various way with light. Some flooring materials are known to produce mirror like reflection. As to dark flooring materials, they, on the contrary, absorb light and this absorption makes a room darker. As to light materials, they reflect light and help create a lighter and brighter room. Floors are subject to moisture, dirt, and dust. They are also subject to the action of feet and the load of furniture. That is why they require more cleaning and maintenance work than any other components other components of a building. It should be taken into account that floors should be designed in such a way as to deal with the problems of sanitation, fire-resistance, and combustibility. They should also redesigned so as to deal with the structural loads the will place on the frame of the building.





Read and translate the following questions.



  1. What are the main functional components of any modern building?

  2. In what way does hard (soft) flooring influence the acoustics of a room?

  3. What flooring materials help create a brighter room?

  4. What people`s activities are floors subject to?

  5. How should floors be designed? What problems should the designers deal with?

Ornamental floor Covering Chose the English sentences b) corresponding to the given Russian ones a).

  1. Основания под пол насеките, очистите, промойте водой.

    1. В этом помещении делайте, пожалуйста, рисунчатый пол.

    2. При устройстве пола… с прямоугольным рисунком плитки располагайте параллельно стенам, с диагональным рисунком плитки располагайте под углом 45.

    3. Наносите мастику на основание на один ряд плиток

    4. После нанесения мастики необходимо сразу же укладывать плитку.

    5. Укладу плиток ведите по разработанным картам раскроя.

    6. Подогрев плиток производите на электроплите.

    7. Плотнее, пожалуйста, прижимайте плитку к основанию.

    8. Для более плотного прилипания плитки осадите её ударами резинового молотка.

    9. Резку плиток производите при помощи резок.



  1. Make an ornamental floor covering in the room, please.

  2. Scratch, clean, and wash out the subfloor.

  3. When making a floor with… a rectangular design set the tiles parallel to the wall … a diagonal design set the tiles at 45 to the wall.

  4. Cut the tiles with a cutter.

  5. For better adhesion tap the tiles into position with a rubber mallet.

  6. Lay the tiles to the prepared design.

  7. Apply mastic to the subfloor only for one course of tiles.

  8. Tiles should be laid immediately after the mastic has been applied.

  9. Press the tiles tightly to the subfloor, please.

  10. Heat up the tiles on an electric stove.





Laying the Parquet Floor

Master the key terms and head words

  1. Battens-рейка row- ряд

  2. To batten= скреплять рейками string- шнурок

  3. Direction- направление toque- гребень

  4. To face- облицованный to lay- настилать

  5. Joint-стык, шов to saw- пилить

  6. Joist- балка

Read the given sentences. Try to translate the English sentences into Russian.





  1. Lay a parquet floor in this room.

  2. Select flooring battens of same wood.

  3. Lay the parquet floor only after all the preparatory work has been done.

  4. Parquet strips should be laid in the direction of the light. Parquet strips in corridors should be laid in the direction of the movement of the people.

  5. Lay the strips working towards you self.

  6. The tongue of the laid strip should face the parquet- floor layer.

  7. Lay the first row of parquet strips … mm from the wall.

  8. Before the first row is laid fix a string along the line of the course.

  9. Every strip should be moved toward the previously laid one.

  10. Force the strip into position by tapping a piece of board set against the strip.

  11. Nail the pressed strip down.

  12. The nail should be … 60-70 mm long.

  13. Saw the strips with a disc saw, please.

  14. When laying short parquet strips make the joints on common joists.

  15. An additional common joist should be set up here.



  1. В этом помещение настилайте паркетный пол.

  2. Рейки основания подбирайте из древесины одной породы.

  3. Настилку пола из паркетных досок производите после окончания подготовительных работ.

  4. Паркетные доски укладываются по направлению света. В коридорах паркетные доски укладываются по направлению движения людей.

  5. Настилку досок ведите »на себя».

  6. Гребень укладываемой доски должен быть обращен в сторону паркетчика.

  7. Первый ряд паркетных досок кладите на расстояние … мм от стены.

  8. Перед укладкой первого ряда натяните шнур вдоль линии укладки.

  9. Каждая последующая доска придвигается к ранее уложенной.

  10. Придвигайте доску ударом молотка по прокладке из обрезка доски.

  11. Прижатую паркетную доску прибивайте гвоздями.

  12. Гвозди для прибивки паркета должны быть длинной 60-70мм.

  13. Доски распилите, пожалуйста, дисковой пилой.

  14. При настилки укороченных паркетных досок стык должен быть на лаге.

  15. Здесь надо установить дополнительную лагу.

Read and translate the questions. Answer them consulting the sentences given above.

  1. How flooring battens should be selected?

  2. When must the parquet floor be laid?

  3. In what direction should parquet strips be laid?

  4. What direction should the tongue of the laid strip face?

  5. How should the first row of parquet strips be laid?

  6. Where a string should be fixed?

  7. In what way should every strip be moved?

  8. In what way should the strips be forced into position?

  9. How long should the nails be?

  10. What kind of saw is used for sawing the strips?



Stairway







Master the key terms and head words

  1. Access-доступ, подход

  2. Available-имеющийся в наличии

  3. Means- средства

  4. Rise-подъём

  5. Horizontal- горизонтальный



Read and translate the article.

Practically every modern building is supplied with stairways of some kind. A stairway is designed to provide a means of access between different floor levels of a building. What is required of stair construction? The main requirements are the following. Firstly, there should be guaranteed equal rise for every step and landing. Secondly, the maximum pitch length to the horizontal must be 42. Thirdly, stair length must include not less than two rises and not greater that sixteen.



























Doors

The fundamental purpose of a door is to provide access into or out of a building. Doors also serve for providing access into or out of various compartments of a building. Doors also have the following functions. They provide:



  1. Security;

  2. Weather resistance;

  3. Fire- resistance;

  4. Thermal insulation;

  5. Sound insulation.



As to exterior doors, they must be well-designed and properly constructed. They must not leak air, wind, heat and water.





Answer the following questions. Try to consult the article as little as possible.



  1. What are the fundamental purposes of a door?

  2. What are their functions?

  3. What kinds of resistance do they provide?

  4. What kinds of insulation do they provide?

  5. What mustn`t the exterior doors leak?



The main Demands to the profession.

Joiner



My profession is a joiner. I must know the main properties of wood, the characteristics of wood materials, plywood, glues, ornamental materials, the methods of using of different kinds of instruments. I must know the main information about glasswork. I must be able to work up the wood, read draughts, to make handicraft wares, doors and windows, floors. Like my profession.

Words:



  1. Property-свойство;

  2. Wood- древесина;

  3. Plywood- фанера;

  4. Glue- клей;

  5. Method- приём;

  6. Glass- стекло;

  7. Be able- уметь;

  8. Work up- обрабатывать;

  9. Draught- чертеж; Handicraft wares- ручное изделие.











Electrogaswelder





  1. Pioneers in welding

Vasily Vladimirovich Petrov

( 1761 – 1834)

Well-known academician V. Petrov was the first who invented the electric arc. He made a great contribution to the science of welding. It was a very important event for welding.

V. Petrov was born in 1761 in a small town Oboyani in the family of priest. He got his elementary education at home. He entered Teacher’s Gymnazium and was the best student.

For some years he was a teacher of physics. His lifetime Petrov devoted the science. He worked hard as a scientists wrote a lot of scientific articles and books.



Nikolay Nikolaevich Benardos

( 1842 – 1905)

N. Benardos is one of the greatest scientists in the world. He is a well-known for his fundamental contribution to the science of electric arc welding. He is a founder of all types and methods of welding.

N. Benardos was born in 1842. All men in his family were officers. But he wanted to be an engineer. N. Benardos got his elementary education at home.

In 1862 he entered the University and became a student of Academy in Moscow.

N. Benardos had a highly – developed talent of invented. He invented some kinds of accumulators for elecrowelding. N. Benardos devoted his life to the science and his country.



Nikolay Gavrilovich Slavyanov

(1854 – 1897)

N. Slavyanov, a famous scientist in the field of welding, in the development of metallurgy, was born in 184 in Voronezh. He was a student of gymnasium and finished it with a gold medal.

N.slavyanov graduated from institute of mines and worked as an engineer at a plant. He interested in such a new branch of science as electric engineering.

Yevhen Paton

( 1870 – 1953 )

Yevhen Paton, a prominent Ukrainian scientist in the field of building bridges and welding, was born in a French town of Nice in 1870. He graduated from the Polytechnical Institute in Dresden, and later – from the Institute of Engineers of Means of Communication in St Petersburg.

From 1904 till 1939, with several breaks, Paton was a professor at the Polytechnical Institute in Kyiv. He made a valuable contribution to the science of designing bridges, the technology of their building and the methods of testing them. He was the author of several fundamental manuals on the building of bridges and some original projects for bridges and overpasses.

Later Paton got interested in welding. He wrote a great deal of works in the filed of welding. He was the founder of Ukrainian school of welding.

In 1929 he organized the Laboratory of Electric Welding where he was a director from 1934 till the last days of his life. Yevhen Paton died in Kiyv in 853.

One of the longest bridges across the Dniepro (1/543 kilometres long) is named after him.

Paton’s son, Mores (born in 1918) continued his father’s work. He became an academia, like his father, and for a very long time headed the Research Institute of Welding, named after his father. He worked out new methods of welding and laid the foundations of welding under water and in outer space.

Use these questions as a plan and tell in English about Yevhen Paton

  1. What field of science did Yevhen Paton work in?

  2. When and where was he born?

  3. What education did he get?

  4. Where did he work?

  5. What was his contribution into the science?

  6. What construction is named after him?

  7. When did he die?

  8. Who continued his work?









  1. Metals

Master the key terms and head words

Expensive – дорогой

Framework – основа, каркас, рама

Invention – изобретение

Joint – соединение, стык

Rare – редкий

Skyscraper – небоскреб

Slab – плита (каменная, металлическая)

Traffic – уличное движение

To cast – Отливать

To introduce – Вводить, выдвигать

To join – соединять, присоединяться к

To turn out – Оказываться

To turn – сделаться, повернуться

Turner – Токарь

Cast in situ – литой на месте

Wrought iron – Сварочное железо













Read and translate the article.

From the History of Metals

Metals began to be widely used as construction materials not so long ago. Before the beginning of the nineteenth century metals played little structural role in the process of building. Mostly the served for joining parts of buildings. The ancient Greeks and Romans are known to use bronze for joining slabs of stone.

It was only in the eighteenth century when the first all-metal structure was bully in Europe. It was a cast-iron bridge across the river Severen in England. The strength of the bridge turned out to be so great that now, more than two centuries after its construction, it still carries heavy modern traffic across the Severn.

In the first half of the nineteenth century cast iron and wrought iron were introduced and used for industrial construction in Europe and North America. Steel was not widely used, being considered a rare and expensive building material. Inexpensive steel first began to be produced and used only with the invention of the Bessemer process, in the 1850s. From that period on, metal started to be used as rather popular and useful building material. The famous Eiffel Tower of Paris was constructed of wrought iron in 1889. By that period several steel frame skyscrapers had already been built in the United States. That was the beginning of the new era; a new highly useful and popular construction material had been born and introduced into building industry.



Answer the questions given below. Try to do it without consulting the text of the article.

  1. For what purpose were metals mostly used before the beginning of the nineteenth century?

  2. What did ancient Greeks and Romans use bronze for?

  3. When and where was the first all-metal structure built? What can you say about its present-day condition?

  4. What kinds of iron were introduced in the first half of the nineteenth century?

  5. Why was steel as a building material unpopular for a long period?

  6. What is the essence of the Bessemer process?

  7. What was the global result of its invention?

  8. What material is the famous Eiffel Tower constructed of?

  9. In what country were the first skyscrapers built?

  10. Are they good to live in? Would you like to live in a skyscraper?



Translate the extract in writing. Use a dictionary if necessary/

The Empire State Building was built in 1931 in the United States of America. Its construction took about two years. The exterior of the skyscraper is supported by a framework produced of steel . It should be noted that 60,000 tons of steel were used for its production. The Empire State Building is considered to be one of the tallest and spacious construction of the world. It can be attended by 80,000 people simultaneously.



Ferrous and NON-Ferrous metals

Master the key terms and head words.

Alloy – сплав

Exception – исключение

Ferrous – обозначение соединений закиси железа

To forge - ковать

To melt – отливать, плавить

To pull – тянуть

To pool down – сносить постройку

Read and translate the article.

All metals, with the exception of mercury, are hard- and fire-resistant. The common properties of metals being hardness and high fie-resistance, they are widely used in modern construction.

Metals are divided into to main groups: ferrous and non-ferrous. Iron, steel and their various alloys melong to the group of ferrous metals, while the main component of non-ferrous metals is not iron.

All metals have some common properties: they can be pulled, forged, and melted. They are also good conductors of electricity.

Ferrous metals are commonly used for construction of supporting members. Steel and other ferrous metals serve as reinforcement in ferroconcrete constructions.

As to non-ferrous metals, their advantage is their being light. They are also good conductors of electricity, copper being the best one. Metals possess high resistance.

Pair work. Think of several questions covering the article. Put them to your groupmate.

















STEEL

Kinds of steel:

Roofing steel – кровельная сталь

Alloyed – легированная

Sheet – листовая

Stainless – нержавеющая

Strip – полосовая

Welding – сварочная

Reinforcing – арматурная



Master the key terms and head words.

Amount – количество, сумма

General – общий, общего характера

Careful – точный, старательный

Ordinary – обычный, простой



Read and translate the article

What is steel as a construction material? Steel may be classified as iron with the controlled amount of carbon. The amount of carbon in steel is generally less than 1.7 per cent. Ordinary structural steel should contain less than three tenth of one per cent carbon. This kind of steel also contains small amounts of phosphorus, sulfur, oxygen, nitrogen and silicon. Like iron and its alloys, steel belongs to ferrous metals. It is a hard substance. Accordingly, it can be pulled forged, and melted. Generally, steel, this strong metal, like other metals, is a good conductor of electricity. Alloyed steel and stainless steel are corrosion-resistant kinds of steel. Corrosion-resistant materials are known to be widely used for plant equipment, furnaces, valves, etc. It should be noted that steel frames as a whole and their separate parts should be carefully designed: their function is to be able to carry the loads imposed on them and supported by them.

Translate the terminological combinations.

Ordinary steel ________________________________________________________

Ordinary structural steel ________________________________________________

Controlled amount _____________________________________________________

Controlled amount of carbon _____________________________________________

Alloyed steel __________________________________________________________

Corrosion-resistant alloyed steel __________________________________________

Steel frames __________________________________________________________

Carefully designed steel frames ___________________________________________

Stainless steel _________________________________________________________

Plant equipment produced of stainless steel _________________________________

Sheet steel ____________________________________________________________

Generally used sheet steel _______________________________________________

Translate the following questions.



  1. What group of metals does steel belong to?

  2. What substances can steel contain?

  3. What amount of carbon does steel generally contain?

  4. What materials can be used for producing plant equipment?

  5. What is the construction purpose of steel frames? For what reason must they be carefully designed?

ALUMINIUM. ALUMINA

Master the key terms and head works

Alumina – глинозем, окись алюминия

Ductile – гибкий, ковкий

Foil – фольга

Middle – середина

Oxygen – кислород

Power – сила, энергия, мощность

Relative – относительный

Transfer – передача, перемещение

Read and translate the article.

Aluminum is a considerably new structural material. For a long period it was considered to be rather expensive since its production required the use of electric power. Because of its relatively high cost, aluminum was not very popular as a construction material till the middle of the twentieth century/ But now the situation is absolutely different.

Aluminum and aluminum- based alloys are extremely popular and are widely used in various forms for constructions purposes.

The advantages of aluminum, compared with other popular and are its high strength combined with lightness. High – purity aluminum (about 99% pure) is soft and ductile but is geat disadvantage is that it is not strong enough. At the same time it has high corrosion resistance and is used in construction of buildings as bright foil for heat insulation, roofing, exterior and interior architectural ornamentation.

And what about aluminum alloys? They are mush more advantageous than pure substance; Aluminum alloys are much harder and stronger than pure aluminum. Besides, pure aluminums rather difficult to cast while many of its alloys are extremely easily cast. Pure aluminum is easily alloyed with other metals. And these combinations possess a great variety of usage. For example, when alloyed with copper, aluminum possesses additional strength. Unfortunately, it is much less corrosion resistive than alloys with manganese, chromium, or magnesium and silicon.

One more advantage of aluminum is that it can be easily remolded over and over again.

Aluminum combined with oxygen forms a new oxide. Its name is alumina. Alumina is a colorless crystallic substance. It is glass hard solid and extremely durable.

It should be also noted that being an excellent conductor aluminum is widely used In power engineering. It serves for long-distance transfer of electric power.

Pair work. Have a talk with your groupmate.

  1. Why was aluminum unpopular for a long period?

  2. What good qualities does aluminum possess?

  3. Where is aluminum in the form of bright foil used?

  4. What are the advantages of aluminum alloys?

  5. Can aluminum be reemitted?

  6. In what way is alumina produced?

  7. What are its properties?

  8. What does aluminum serve in power engineering for?







  1. Welding



There are a number of methods of joining metal articles together depending on the type of metal and the strength of the join which is required. Soldering gives a satisfactory joint for light articles of steel, copper or brass, but a joint is brazed, riveted or welted for strong permanent joints.

The simplest method of welding two pieces of metal together is heating. The ends are heated to a white heat (for iron, about 1300 0C) in a flame, when the metal becomes plastic. The ends are then pressed or hammered together. Care must be taken to ensure that the welded surfaces are clean, for dirt will weaken the weld. A high temperature causes oxidation, and a film of oxide is formed on the heated metal. At welding heat, the flux melts, and the oxide particles are dissolved in it together with any other impurities which may be present. The metal surfaces are pressed together, and the flux is squeezed out of the weld. A number of different types of weld may be used, a vee-shaped butt weld normally employed. It is rather stronger than the ordinary lap weld.

The heat for welding is generated in several ways, depending on the soft of metal which is being welded and on tips shape. An extremely not flame can be produced from an oxy-acetylene torch. For some welds an electric arc is used. In this method, an electric current is passed across two electrodes, and the metal surfaces are placed between them. The work itself constitutes one electrode and the other is an insulated filled rod. An arc is struck between the two, and the heat which is generated melts the metal at the weld. A different method known as spot welding is usually employed for welding sheets or plates of metal together. Two sheets or plates are placed electrodes. Today the new welding methods include laser welding and electronic beam welding.









Vocabulary



Welding – сварка

Article – деталь

Depending on – в зависимости

Joint – шов, соединение

To hammer – ковать

Weld – сварочный шов, сварочное соединение

Dirt – грязь

To weaken – ослаблять

Oxidation – окисление

Flux – флюс

Welding heat – температура сварки

To dissolve – растворяться

Impurity – примесь

To squeeze – выдавливать

Vee - shaped – V-образный

Butt weld – сварка в тык

Lap weld – сварка в нахлестку

Oxy-acetylene torch – ацетиленовая горелка

Filler rod – Присадочный пруток

Spot welding – точечная сварка

Overlap – перекрытие

Laser welding – Лазерная сварка

Electronic beam welding – электронно-лучевая сварка

The main Demands to the Profession

Electrogaswelder



My profession is an Electrogaswelder. I must know the arrangement and the principle of work of electro welding and gas welding equipment, welding flame, the causes of rise of defects of welding joints and the ways of its removal. I must read draughts.

I like my profession.





Words:



  1. Arrangement – устройства

  2. Equipment – оборудование

  3. Flame – Пламя

  4. Cause – причина

  5. Rise – возникновение

  6. Joint – шов

  7. Removal – устранение

  8. Be able – уметь

  9. Draught – чертеж








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Предмет: Английский язык

Категория: Прочее

Целевая аудитория: 11 класс

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Английский язык . Пособие для учащихся средних профессиональных учебных заведений

Автор: Кнышенко Наталья Григорьевна

Дата: 04.12.2015

Номер свидетельства: 261835

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